Global Management

Blades Inc. cases study analysis paper factors of foreign exchange rates
Exchange rates are the amount of countries currency needed to purchase on unit of another currency and the foreign exchange market is the monetary link between countries that makes it possible for global trade to be more efficient.

When Blades chief financial officer preferred the flexibility that options offer over contracts because he could let the options expire if the Yen depreciates. The company would have liked to exercise a price that was 5% above the existing rate to ensure blades would have to pay no more than 5% above the existing rate for a transactions a few months beyond their order date, as long as the option premium was no more than 1.6% of the price blades had to pay per unit when implementing the option.

In reviewing, the options on the yen blades required a premium of about 1.5% of the total transaction amount that would be paid if the option is completed. A good example of this is the yen rate was $0.0072, and blades would purchase this option for a price of $0.000756, which was 5% above the existing rate. The premium for this option was $0.0001134, which is 1.5% of the price per yen that blades would have to pay if the yen option, was exercised. Some events have created more uncertainty about the yen??™s value in the future, but the events did not affect the rate of the future rate of the yen where blades interests were concerned.

Chikamatsu Monzaemons Plays

For many of the characters in Chikamatsu Monzaemon??™s plays, their honor was defined by how the public viewed them and how they will be remembered. The value of life is miniscule compared to their reputation and honor. Many of Chikamatsu??™s plays contain the motif of suicide. By definition, suicide may simply be the ending of one??™s life by one??™s own free will. However, in three of Chikamatsu??™s plays, The Love Suicides at Sonezaki, The Battles of Coxinga and The Love Suicides at Amijima, the suicides that occurred reveal the mentality and the moral beliefs of the people who committed suicide.
Completely opposite of a cowardly act, suicides were considered to be brave and noble actions. The fact that one has enough courage to end his life to defend a noble cause was considered heroic. From the three plays, suicides were merely exchanges; life itself was the ultimate currency when all comes to worst. For all of the characters who have committed suicide, committed suicide for the sake of their reputation and always took into consideration of how people might view them. Therefore, the characters do not suicide on their own free will, but rather because of the pressure given by the public. Only by giving up life, one can then redeem their honor, and their suicide can serve as proof of innocence. Only the act of suicide can appease the public. Strikingly, in the three plays, the characters in each play do not suicide alone. Allowing a love one to die by themselves may affect the reputation of those who remain alive. Therefore, not only do women suicide for the sake of protecting the men??™s honor but actually for their own.

Global Management Mba

Why start an MBA program This is a serious question with serious financial and time implications. Especially given that I am currently still flying, started a business almost two years ago, and now am beginning a journey for the next 18 months to complete the MBA. However, for me, after serious consideration, it was simply, yes I need to do this now. The business I started along with my business partner two years ago involves providing export financing and trade insurance services to both foreign buyers and American suppliers. When I started looking at MBA programs, I quickly learned that the only school offering me the flexibility and the program I wanted was Phoenix University. In reviewing the MBA program in Global Management, I learned that this program was exactly what I needed to help my business flourish in the international market place. Courses in international market, international finance, and international planning strategy and implementation were exactly what I needed as core acumen to succeed in an international business. Additionally, in reviewing my Jungian assessment, I reaffirmed what I had known all along that I am viewed as a strategist, and being the President of my company, naturally looked upon as the leader to move the company in the right direction.
International marketing is very different than domestic marketing in that one has to first logistically learn the market in a country that can be thousands of miles away. Secondly, there are cultural and language barriers that have to be overcome. In the description for MKT 571, International Marketing, the following course description is provided, ???This course prepares students to apply international marketing concepts to create and sustain customer value. Students learn to solve marketing problems in a collaborative environment presented across international borders. Topics include global market research, customer relationships, branding, market segmentation, product development, pricing, channels, communications, and public relations.??? (reference PU). Clearly, a course in international marketing will teach me how to put in place an international marketing plan to help grow my business.
International finance is a key area, and once again very different from domestic finance in that in doing credit analysis on a business abroad has many challenges. There are issues such as cultural financial philosophies, commercial risk analysis, and underwriting. In the Global Management concentration, the perfect course for this is FIN 571, International Corporate Finance (reference). This course teaches international business valuation, cultural approaches to time value of money, long term financing solutions, hedging mechanisms, capital budgets, working capital, cash flow, and constraints on financial flows. Once again this course will be instrumental in teaching me core international business concepts in finance.
Lastly, in operating any international business, one has to have a strategy and how to implement that strategy to remain competitive in the market. The perfect course to teach this key issue is, STR 581, International Strategic Planning and Implementation (reference). This course teaches key concepts in international planning and implementation to gain competitive advantage. Topics include risk management, strategic analysis, implementation, evaluation, corporate social responsibility, and direct foreign investment. Clearly without learning these key concepts in cross border transactions, a business is doomed to fail.
As someone who is looked upon as the natural leader of the organization, and being a strategist and a planner, it is my responsibility to guide the company into successfully entering an international market, and once there, to stay competitive. Without the MBA, this would be a very difficult task, clearly completing the MBA in Global Management at Phoenix University will help me accomplish this goal.

Chief Seattle Oration

Chief Seattle Oration
In his Oration to Governor Isaac I. Stevens, Chief Seattle attempts to convince the whites that they should deal fairly with the Native Americans despite their inferior status. His style of rhetorical strategies and devices of similes, rhetorical questions, and emotional diction, Chief Seattle gets his point across to the whites that the Natives are weak, but not powerless.
First is the emotion Chief Seattle used in the beginning. He says ???wept tears of comparison??? to help his people gain sympathy. Then later in the oration Chief Seattle says ???Your God is not our God!??? and forcefully states ???Your God loves your people and hates mine.??? These two sentences easily show Chief Seattle??™s anger and disapproval.
Next through more emotional diction, Chief Seattle adds rhetorical questions to make the reader think and empathize. He says ?????¦he will protect us, but can that ever be??? and ???How then can we be brother, we are two distinct races.??? This lets the reader, Governor Isaac; think whether forcing the Indians out of their land is right or wrong. Also, the rhetorical questions let Chief Seattle express his anger better.
Similes are used a lot in this passage. With some imagery involved, Chief Seattle describes the decrease in Native Americans and increase of white people. He describes the whites intruding his land as ???grass that covers the prairies.??? The decreasing number of Native Americans was described as ???scattering trees of a storm-swept plain.??? The storm that took over represents the whites that are pushing out the Indians. His comparison of whites to grass growing anywhere like a storm, Chief Seattle is establishing the idea that whites are greedy land owners in Governor Isaac??™s mind.
To conclude, Chief Seattle??™s usage of similes, rhetorical questions, and emotional diction, helped him achieve his purpose on what was happening to his tribe and land.

Global Macro Practice in Human Services

Global Macro Practice in Human Services

Introduction to Human Services
Deborah Johnson
November 22, 2010

Global Macro Practice in Human Services
The diagnosis of HIV is devastating because there is currently no cure for the disease; however, the diagnosis does not mean a death sentence. ???But today, thanks to the development of HIV medications, people are no longer dying from AIDS they are living with the HIV virus??? (Cichocki, 2009, para. 1). Many people live productive lives with HIV and a support system composed of parents, siblings, friends, or a partner will help with adjusting to the diagnosis, managing the disease, and the process of living with the disease. Other helpful support systems for those dealing with the disease include counselors and social workers.
Managing HIV means learning about the disease, following the medication regimen, and understanding the affects the disease has on the body. Managing the disease also means understanding the responsibility of practicing safe sex. Someone infected with the HIV virus will use a condom during sexual intercourse. Using a condom is necessary to prevent infecting someone who does not have the virus and to prevent reinfecting someone presently infected. Reinfecting occurs when someone who has the virus and does not practice safe sex infects someone with a different strand of the virus (Cichocki, 2007).
Whether the disease is in the United States or abroad, the basic social issues remain the same; however, the limited access of information in countries struggling with the epidemic does exist. Affording the medication and following the medication regimen may not be easy. In addition, the outlook on living with the disease is bleak for some countries dealing with HIV/AIDS. Thankfully, there are organizations like the World Health Organization (WHO) that help countries affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. WHO provides countries with information, support and medication to assist with the fight against HIV/AIDS. The medication used to fight the disease is antiretroviral (ARV) medication. The treatment or antiretroviral therapy (ART) consists of three medications, and the therapy will ?????¦suppress the HIV virus and stop the progression of HIV disease??? (The World Health Organization [WHO], 2010, para. 1). WHO provides assistance to almost 200 countries including the United States; however, countries helped by WHO requires approval by the World Health Assembly. The information below states how countries can become members of WHO.
All countries which are Members of the United Nations may become members of WHO by accepting its Constitution. Other countries may be admitted as members when their application has been approved by a simple majority vote of the World Health Assembly. Territories which are not responsible for the conduct of their international relations may be admitted as Associate Members upon application made on their behalf by the Member or other authority responsible for their international relations. Members of WHO are grouped according to regional distribution (193 Member States). (The World Health Organization [WHO], 2010, para. 1)
Millions of people with HIV/AIDS deal with the social issues that accompany the disease. Although there is currently no cure for the disease, there is comfort in knowing that life does not end with the diagnosis. Life adjustments are necessary for the management of the disease. People affected by the disease must remain healthy and follow the medication regiment. With a strong support system and the assistance of organizations like WHO, people around the world with HIV/AIDS have a fighting chance.

Cichocki, M. (2007). Now that I am positive, do I have to practice safer sex. Retrieved from
Cichocki, M. (2009). Getting back to the basics – HIV virus information. Retrieved from
The World Health Organization. (2010). Countries. Retrieved from
The World Health Organization. (2010). Antiretroviral therapy. Retrieved from

Chiefs Delight a Creative Analysis of the Character of the Chief in the Sailor Who Fell from Grace with the Sea

Zachary Byrne
World Literature #2
Mrs. R. Tisdale
IB English V
4 February, 2010
Chief??™s Delight: A Creative Analysis of the Character of the Chief in
The Sailor Who Fell from Grace with the Sea
The Sailor Who Fell from Grace with the Sea, by Yukio Mishima, is the story of Ryuji, a sailor who meets a woman, Fusako, and her son, Noboru, in the port town of Yokohama. During Ryuji??™s stay, he develops a tentative, romantic relationship with Fusako. Noboru, a boy of around 13 years old, has taken to spying on their relationship, watching the couple interact. He even watches them fornicate through a hole in the wall. Noboru idolizes Ryuji for the first part of the story, telling his gang of friends all about Ryuji??™s actions. The gang is a group of boys from middle class families who come together to learn what they can about life from the Chief, the self appointed leader of the group. Their philosophy on life is a bleak one, promoting a total lack of emotion or compassion for any living thing. At first, they are all thrilled about the sailor, Ryuji, but once Ryuji??™s originally unapparent, conflicting emotions begin to show, the gang??™s feelings quickly turn to those of contempt. Noboru, unhappy to see his hero falling from the Chief??™s good grace, is delighted when Ryuji must cast off again and leave town.
Ryuji??™s fatal mistake is his return to Yokohama, and in turn, Fusako. Noboru is furious that Ryuji would sink to such a level and come crawling back to his mother. When Ryuji decides to stay in Yokohama and marry Fusako, Noboru is furious. The gang, especially the Chief, is sickened by this pitiful display of emotion. The Chief offers one way to save Ryuji from becoming ???the worst thing on the face of this earth, a father???, death (Mishima 162). The gang makes all the arrangements for the murder of Ryuji. The next day, Noboru tricks Ryuji into coming with the gang on an outing. Thinking it is the fatherly thing to do; Ryuji accepts and goes willingly to his death. The gang drugs him and the last scene leads the reader to believe that Ryuji is dissected, just as the gang had done to a cat earlier in the story. At the very end, Ryuji had found the ???glory??? he had been searching for all his life. (Mishima 181)
Though the novel ends before the genuine death of Ryuji, context clues, such as the Chief??™s surgical gloves and the original plans made by gang, indicate that Ryuji does indeed die and is dissected by the Chief. The following chapter is written in Mishima??™s style and seeks to explore the mind of the Chief, a very interesting, but rarely referred to character in the novel. This chapter details the inferred dissection of Ryuji from the Chief??™s objective perspective, giving insight into the cold heart of the gang??™s leader. The cold, bestial imagery will be prominent throughout the passage helping to characterize the Chief, revealing his true nature. The powerful, persuasive ideas the Chief preaches permeate the entire novel, and with an analysis of the Chief??™s perspective, a better understanding of Mishima??™s work might be achieved.
Winter- Chapter 8
The chief watched as the Ryuji??™s solid, muscle-bound form slowly slumped to the side. The drugs had worked perfectly, bringing a once-strong sailor to the ground. He sees the potential in this inert body, still gently pulsing with life, the potential for glory. True glory, not the kind he heard about from the silly dreamers his father would bring to the house, always wishing for something that had no real meaning other than to assuage their own self image. No, he saw the glorious potential for this man that would soon cease to be a man and transform into something far greater. The chief looked up at his companions. Number three was shaking harder than he had been, carelessly showing emotion, and in it, weakness. The others were consoling him. These sniveling boys were simply imposters in his domain, acting as though they understood, but in reality, only there to be with him. He was inwardly disgusted with them, but every prophet needs a following to preach to. At that moment, however, the chief had no time for weakness; Greatness was upon them.
???Stop,??? the chief commanded with a savage glare, ???This is a chance for him and us, and you all are wasting it through your petty words. Steel yourselves. True life is beginning now.??? Immediately, the gang??™s chattering ceased and the chief felt his power over them tighten like a tether, binding them to his whim. He picked up the scissors with the greatest care, then, with a horrific, guttural cry, stabbed them mercilessly into the dead body of Ryuji, right where the great chest muscles met with the nape of the neck. A startled gasp echoed throughout the small cave as the rest of the gang jumped from surprise. The chief smirked at the boyish display, knowing that he was the only one in the cave who grasped what was truly taking place. The scissors felt cool in his hand, his preferred weapon, his tooth and claw. They sliced easily through Ryuji??™s skin to his navel. One long smooth cut, no room for sloppiness on this occasion. There was blood on the scissors; the chief felt a surge of excitement. He continued carving from the original wound to the shoulders, tough from heaving ropes at sea. Jarringly, the silver tool hit a bone, startling him and the others. The chief reprimanded himself and put down the scissors. Slowly, carefully, he peeled back the skin from the life inside. Swaddled in skin, life had masqueraded as a human, a sailor, but once that mask had been pulled off, the chief saw the same life as in the cat, always the same life.
The dark red blood flowed over the glisteningly pale ribs, like a river moving out to the sea that was the large pool in the abdomen. The chief dipped his finger into the pool, lightly, as if to just brush the top. The tip of his tongue reached out ever so slightly to lap at this little drop of red. The warm, metallic taste reminded him of the ships this man used to travel the world on, the ships he used to be a part of. But now he was a part of something larger, and vastly more important. The chief was proud of his hand in this merging of man and earth. The pool of blood around the stomach finally welled up to an extent where the levees of flesh could no longer hold it at bay. Rivulets of blood began to seep over the tan walls and join the earth. The chief knew the source of all this life and warmth was trapped within this useless body, but he could not see it. The ribs had imprisoned it, as if the corpse was trying to hold on to this life at all costs. The pitiful nature of the human body sickened him. The chief knew what must be done. They must break these bonds and set the life free, release it of its shackles of flesh.
???Number one, number three and number five, take those ribs on the other side. You other two come by me,??? the chief commanded. The boys shuffled to their designated spots like the sheep they were, and he was the wolf.
???On three??¦ We pull,??? he proclaimed gleefully, ???One, two, three!??? With a savage intensity, the boys put all of their youthful strength into pulling back the bars of the white cage. One by one, the ribs broke with a wet crunch, signaling that that boy was finished. All but the chief wiped their hands on the ground nervously, foolish in the eyes of their leader. He might have reproached them if he hadn??™t more pressing matters to attend to. They had broken the obstructions guilty of ensnaring the life within the shell of flesh. They had opened the cage; now it was time to set the prisoner free. The chief plunged his hand down into the warm damp chest, searching for the lightly pulsing life force that was still within. His hand wrapped around the heart, feeling its glorious throbbing. With a flourish, the chief tore the heart from its cell, disregarding all subtlety. He had liberated it, bringing it into the world and, in doing so, gave it what is so rightly deserved. He walked with the gang outside the cave, carrying the dripping prize in both his gloved hands, looking like a doctor halfway through a transplant. Number two gouged out a small hole in the earth, and the chief slowly laid the heart within it. The throbbing had ceased, signifying to him that his mission had succeeded. He had made this man more than he could have ever been himself. He had brought him what he had always sought, glory. The glory of truly living, if even for a mere two minutes. Word Count:1516

Global Local Developments Affecting Adult Learning


WORDS : 3280

TOPIC: Using Holst??™s perspectives, write an essay in which you analyse critically global and local developments which shaped a government??™s responses to adult education in a society of your choice under conditions of globalization. Make some comparisions with government??™s responses to adult education in post -1994 South Africa under conditions of globalization.
Draw on the literature, in particular Holst??™s analysis of a longer version of globalisation/Marxist political economy perspective of adult education or a strong version of globalisation/civil societarian perspective on adult education, and ideas which you have developed during this part of the course.
Holst??™s critique of both perspectives in adult education raises weaknesses for analyses of adult education under conditions of globalisation and calls for ???a new conceptualisation of the politics of radical adult education that goes beyond the two broad perspectives of civil societarian and Marxist orientations ……….??™ (Holst, 2007: 7). With reference to the latter, discuss the academic challenges which may be required to develop a new conceptualisation of the politics of radical adult education.

The aim of this paper is to analyse and critically discuss the global and local developments which impacted on the way South Africa responded to Adult Education. I will use Holst??™s perspectives and discussions that we had in this course, as well as existing academic literature and hence adopt a critical stance on the relevant theoretical perspectives. I will furthermore elaborate on the ???calls for a new conceptualization of the politics of radical adult education that goes beyond the two broad perspectives of civil societarian and Marxist orientations.???
Section 1 will present the broad understanding of global and local socio-economic and political developments that shaped the developments in adult education in South Africa under conditions of globalization.
Section 2 will introduce the theoretical perspectives affecting South African education policies by using Holst??™s longer version of globalization/civil societarian perspective on adult education.
Section 3 will provide comparisons between my analysis of Namibia and South African government??™s initiatives in respect of redressing inequalities in adult basic education under conditions of globalization. I will give specific reference to the similarity between these two countries as both of them are situated in the Global South.
Section 4 will discuss the academic exploration to develop a new conceptualization of the politics of radical adult education.
1.1 Contextual Background
The post-apartheid government of 1994 inherited one of the most unequal societies in the world. Before 1994, all movements, including the ANC fought for social justice and against the neo-liberal thoughts of the Apartheid state. Black South Africans have been exposed to an unequal and divided education system before 1994. After 1994 special attention had been given to the needs of the majority disadvantaged people by addressing the education policies earmarking reconstruction and development for education and training. The state had to create a unified system across diverse racial and economic conditions in order to produce an equity financing model for education. ???Access and quality, for example, are seen as twin imperatives within a broader framework for the achievement of equity, redress and democratization???. (Kruss,G.& Jacklin, H, 1994, p.20) The state had good intentions, but unfortunately inherited the debt of the Apartheid state, had no money for reconstruction and development and was forced to borrow money by the World Bank and IMF.

Illiteracy amongst adults in South Africa remained a deeply-rooted social issue and is inescapably implicated in the political and economic forces of the country. ???Marxist theory explains the production of social relations that resulted in the division of society into classes and the struggle of these classes against one another??? (Youngman, 1986). The distribution of economic power in SA is reflected by an economy in which a white minority has ownership of the means of production while the majority black people are dependent for their subsistence on wage labour. The political power is in the hands of the black majority and the economic power in the hands of the white minority.
1.2 The global/local socio-economic and political developments
Globalization has affected educational policy in nation-states globally. The overwhelming impact of global economic processes meant the rise of neoliberalism as a hegemonic policy discourse. Globalization forced state policy makers to inspire support for and suppress opposition to changes because “greater forces” (global competition, responses to IMF or World Bank demands, obligations to regional alliances, and so on) leave the nation-state “no choice” but to play by a set of global rules not of its own making. ???In this new economy, the nation-state is nearly powerless??? (Holst, p.174).
The Reagan and Thatcher era( TINA-There is no alternative to neoliberalism) in the 1980??™s in particular, saw neoliberalism pushed to most parts of the globe, almost demonizing anything that was publicly owned, encouraging the privatization of anything it could, using military interventions if needed. Structural Adjustment policies (the major cause for poverty) were used to open up economies of poorer countries so that big businesses from the rich countries could own or access many resources cheaply. States played a more facilitating and coordinating role within the economy. In 2008, powerful Northern governments actively intervened during the global financial crisis. Thus, contrary to some dominant views, states are relevant and do participate actively in steering the global economies, however, the role states play are relative to their power position within the globe. States within the South are frequently powerless to act autonomously if Northern states took a contrary position.
South Africa was forced to impose structural adjustment policies designed by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank in order to secure loans to support our weak economy especially after 1994. The White Paper, 1994 on Reconstruction and Development reflects the government??™s attempts to promote neo-liberalism and social transformation. The effect of these policies has been dramatic cutbacks on government spending on education, health services and welfare. Money has been invested in skills training for the specific aim to meet the needs of a neo-liberal economy.
The RDP??™s aim was to address the many social and economic problems in our country such as : violence, lack of housing, inadequate education and health care, lack of democracy and a failing economy. Terblanche (2008) refers to two versions of restructuring.(p.108) : the BEE policy(top down policy) and the policy of neo-liberalism. Even though BEE contributed to the eradication of inequality, it failed. Instead of redistributing wealth and positions to the black majority, it resulted in a few individuals benefiting a lot, the black masses have hardly gained. The neo-liberal policy (macro-economic policy) the government adopted was the Growth Employment and Redistribution Strategy (GEAR). The neo-liberal trend had drastic consequences: increased unemployment, a fail in the average income of working class families and an increase in poverty. The strictly structured state-society government has created a divide between themselves and civil society. It failed to deliver the promises made to the people, resulting in the weakening of its bargaining power. The state needs to balance its commitment between global competiveness and redressing apartheid inequalities.
More study is needed about local responses to defend public education against the introduction of pure market mechanisms to regulate educational exchanges and other policies that seek to reduce state sponsorship and financing and to impose management and efficiency models borrowed from the business sector as a framework for educational decision-making. These educational responses are mostly carried out by teacher unions, new social movements, and critical intellectuals, often expressed as opposition to initiatives in education.
1.3 Government??™s responses to adult education
Based on its vision of providing a better life for all South Africans, the new government??™s Reconstruction and Development Policy (ANC, 1994) placed great emphasis on community development, in which adult literacy and community development were linked. ???Literacy was the only reconstruction and development program project that received no funding at all??? (Aitchison et al., 2000). In addition, the new constitutional and legislative framework states that adult basic education (ABE) is integral to South Africa??™s economic growth and development.

The figures from 1991 (National Educational Report on Adult Basic Education) are talking for themselves. 15 million people without basic schooling and out of this 15 million about 4,5 million were illiterate. (Rule, 2006, p116) Government statistics show that in 1996, 27% of adults had no schooling at all and that 41% of the adult population had completed primary school (i.e., the first 7 years of schooling) ( Statistics South Africa, 1996). The official data show that by 2002, 54% of the population had completed primary education (Presidency, 2003). This group appears to have increased in spite of policy changes and the introduction of compulsory education as is also mentioned in Holst(2007). South Africa still has large numbers of out-of-school youth, which will maintain the long-term need for ABE. There is gender difference in illiteracy: 41% of men and 58% women are considered illiterate. Illiteracy rates are higher in rural areas than in urban areas. Groener (2000) came to the conclusion that ???the statistics between 1996 and 2001 show a decline in the inequalities due to a change in the age cohort, and not as a result of educational interventions.
The specific government acts or policy documents that promote or relate to adult education have included the following: Interim Guidelines for ABET (1995), South African Qualifications Act (1995); National Education Policy Act (1996); South African Constitution (1996); National Multi-Year Implementation Plan for adult education and training in the Department of Education (1997); Skills Development Act (1998) and Skills Development Levy Act (1999). ???Despite the state??™s political initiatives to address institutional barriers to participation in adult basic education, the response from adult learners has been disappointing.??? (Groener, 2000) Adult Learning centres in the community have to rely on private institutions for financial support. The references to ???lifelong learning??™ for example in the White paper on Education and Training in 1995 appeared only a few times. It was linked to human resource development. It suggests that it was largely to decorate a businesslike proposal to introduce a National Qualifications Framework (NQF) that will serve the needs of developing a productive workforce. There is a lack of shared understanding of adult learning which has led to a policy discourse divide between the North and the South, with the former concentrating on the operationalisation of the discourse of lifelong learning and the latter focusing on basic education for all.
Section 2
Longer version of globalization/civil societarian perspective on adult education.
???Gramscian thoughts on organizing for people??™s power whilst dominant over more than the last decade, has reappeared as relevant and a necessary element for transformation.???(Amartya Sen, 1999 as cited in Holst).
The South African situation lends itself towards the ???longer version of globalization??? as is discussed by Holst (2007). This deals with the rise of anti-capitalist struggles. It is argued that adult basic education is an important vehicle in overcoming marginalisation and exclusion and that deliberate efforts are required to incorporate large numbers of individuals into active citizenship and the new knowledge-rich society. Marginalization is??¦ the silencing of lived experiences in discourses constructed through legislation and policies created by the dominant culture, which either ???commatizes or negates??™ the political, economic, historical and social realities of those living in the margins of society. (Sheared, V and Sissil, 2001, p. 4)
In the 2012 Budget Speech it was mentioned that the government has supported the recovery from the 2008 recession, but as they expand infrastructure investment over the period ahead they have to rely on business investing in the future of South Africa as well. In general ABET(Adult Basic Education and Training) centres are typically housed in community learning centres managed by local communities and supported by the Education Department. The Kha Ri Gude (Let us Learn) Literacy Campaign for example was developed in response to a call for a national campaign to end illiteracy amongst South African adults. As a programme of government, and one of the Apex programmes announced in 2008, the campaign may be regarded as one of the important ways in which the developmental state prioritises the needs of the poor and addresses the right of all citizens to basic education in the official language/s of their choice. The campaign, which is the result of recommendations by the Ministerial Committee on Literacy, is intended to provide 4,7 million South Africans with the opportunity to become literate. Achieving this target also means that South Africa would have fulfilled its 2000 Dakar commitment, namely that of reducing illiteracy by 50% by 2015.
Conventional approaches to Adult Education are limited by its narrow concern for formal qualifications of learners that allows for progression towards formal skills development and to fit into the mainstream economy. Some community learning programmes address the divisions and wounds of our history that is ignored in the upper class environments. For example, The Community Healing Network(CHN) in Cape Town concentrates on creating safe spaces for healing and creating an enabling environment for social cohesion to flourish. Generally Community Adult Education tries to satisfy a wide range of need-providing formal education skills in basic or further education, trying to improve the quality of life of the community, the ability to participate in democratic processes including bringing about social transformation. Similar social conditions prevail in Latin America (Brazil), dealing with issues such as the lack of land and housing for the poor. A movement, Abahlali Basi Mjondolo is part of the Poor Peoples??™ Alliance and the leadership uses forms of popular education to educate shack dwellers of their rights to housing. The various strategies involving community adult learning by civil society education activists include, in the main, working for social justice and transformation, thereby paying particular attention to the challenging conditions that marginalized communities face in the present South African context.
Money has been allocated for education, but Adult Education has been neglected. Spending on education will grow from R207 billion in 2012/13 to R236 billion in 2014/15. Additional allocations of R18.8 billion over the medium term are accommodated, including equalisation of learner subsidies for no-fee schools and expanded access to grade R. An amount of R235 million is added to the baseline of the national department over the three-year spending period to extend the national assessments system. An additional R850 million is allocated to improve university infrastructure, including student accommodation facilities. (Budget Speech of Feb. 2012). Since democracy, spending on education often topped 20 % of the annual budget expenditure and currently exceeds 18 %. Annually several billion Rand are spent on skills development. Adult basic education however has been given scant attention, receiving around 1 % of the education budget despite the number of illiterates and functionally illiterate adults ??“ pegged at about 75 % of the number of children in schools. The state has established training authorities (Sector Education Training Authorities ??“ SETAs) covering more than twenty various broad economic/job sectors to address skills development for youth and adults but these have not measured up to the call for a ???skills revolution???. ??? A more recent effort in the area of literacy is the government??™s Mass Literacy Campaign that has begun to address the hugely neglected Adult Basic Education and Training (ABET) sector???( Lind, A 1996). The contribution of Adult learning is a sector that needs to be strengthened in South Africa.
Section 3
Namibia and South Africa
The Namibian economy is closely linked to South Africa with the Namibian dollar pegged to the South African rand. The country is also rich in minerals and adopted a policy of privatization of several enterprises with the hope that it will stimulate foreign investment. Similar to SA the apartheid ideology and policies led to dramatic inequalities and disparities in the quality of education. Following independence, the Ministry of Education undertook a comprehensive education reform process aimed at access, equity, democracy and lifelong learning as principal means of investing in human capital to promote socio-economic development. The whole area of skills and vocational education, which must be considered a component of adult education, has struggled somewhat since independence. Half a dozen traditional vocational training centres have grown to some extent, but there are many doubts about the efficacy of the apprenticeship model on which they are based. In recent years, a similar number of Community Skills Centres (COSDECS) as in SA have been established on a competency-based open access model, but with considerable difficulty in providing community-based management. Two important institutions are now, however, being established to bring about reform in this area: the Namibia Qualifications Authority which has been created to regulate providers and develop a National Qualifications Framework; and (although not yet established by law) a National Training Authority which will administer a payroll levy, allocating funds to whatever institutions, whether private or public, that are able to deliver relevant vocational skills in the most effective and efficient manner.
One of the developments in Namibia was the adoption in 2003 of a National Policy on Adult Learning, born of the discovery that almost every agency of government and many bodies in the private or NGO sector were engaged in some or other form of adult education programme. The National Council on Adult Learning was established. Namibias recently released Vision 2030 has the ideal to move from being a lower middle income country to an industrialised country in the space of a few decades. Such dreams and visions, no doubt, are necessary and are part of creating a hopeful and positive attitude towards the future. However, they cannot disguise the fact that Namibia remains a highly unequal society, with perhaps one-third of its citizens still living in abject poverty. Whether adult learning programmes can be melded with other development efforts to overcome this terrible poverty remains the challenge of the day.
The global institutions that have a stronghold on South Africa as well as Namibia are the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization, the Washington Consensus, International Monetary Institutions and Credit Rating Agencies as well as Transnational Corporations etc. (p. 120). They are the center pillars in the global economy. These global institutions have put these two countries on a path of greater inequality.

The academic exploration to develop a new conceptualization of the politics of radical adult education
Holst(2007) states that the local/global dialect is often insufficiently problematized in Marxist critiques of civil societatarian perspectives and that we should challenge globalization by focusing on its local manifestations???(p.176). The fundamental contradictions within capitalism are not external relations but contradictory relations internal to the process of capitalism. This would mean that there is a contradiction between the forces of production and the relations of production. Capitalism has developed the forces of production to a degree inconceivable under any previous economic system but because they are based on alienated labour the more they develop the more they turn into forces of destruction, either in the form of weapons of unimaginable power or through the destruction of the environment on which our survival depends. If capital can shift production from one country to the next in an effort to find the lowest living standards and most politically oppressed workers, then the efforts of workers to improve their conditions anywhere will be undone. This will call for Oppositional movements to struggle constantly to maintain anything close to decent social provision.
Neoliberalism promotes an elitist and reductionist mentality (Apple, 1999; Gandin, 2007). In South Africa the Lonmin mine incident is a classic example of labour unrest where the state as well as the Union of Mineworkers played a contradictory role due to their relationship with one another backed by neo-liberal ideologies.
This then leans itself to Radical Adult Education Perspectives, a critical pedagogy, as outlined by Freire (1998) which must include critical and creative thinking, not just skills. The critical aspect must examine not only political issues, but also issues of social justice and equity. In a culture of democracy, the dialectic nature of both critique and possibility go hand in hand. Critical democratic pedagogy offers the opportunity to ask the tough questions about their lived experiences and the contradictions that they encounter.
In this paper I have argued that adult education and training, and the success thereof, is determined by both global and local dynamics. Broader social, economic and political issues played a pivotal role in the development of adult education and training in South Africa. After 1994 South Africa, neo liberalism brought further inequalities between rich and poor. The government tried through development policies to bring about transformation, but much is still left to be done because adult basic education and training has been neglected. Despite limitations and barriers imposed by a neoliberal educational agenda, policy approaches and initiatives are beginning to appear locally, nationally and internationally which support and encourage critical democratic pedagogy, a radical approach to Adult Education.


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Apple, M.W. (1999). ???Freire, Neoliberalism and Education??™, Discourse: studies in the cultural politics of education, 20 (1): 5-20.
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Department of Education. (1995). White paper on education and training. Cape Town,
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Department of Education (2009) Kha Ri Gude South Africa Literacy Campaign. Where are we now Kha Ri Gude National Office, Pretoria

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Groener, Z. (2000) ???The political and economic contexts of adult education and training in South Africa.??? In Indabawa, S. Oduaran,A. Walters, S (Ed.), The state of adult and continuing education in Africa. University of Namibia, Windhoek.

Holst (2007) ???The Politics and Economics of Globalisation and Social Change in Radical Adult Education: A Critical Review of Recent Literature??? Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies, Vol.5 No.1

Kruss,G. & Jacklin, Kenton,H. 1994. Realising Change, Ndbani, Cape Town

Lind, A. 1996. Free to Speak Up (Overall Evaluation of the National Literacy
Programme in Namibia, Ministry of Basic Education and Culture). Gamsburg, Namibia: Macrnillan.
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Presidency. (2003). Towards a ten year review: Policy coordination and advisory services.
Pretoria, South Africa: Government Printers.

Rule, P. (2006) “The time is burning”: The right of adults to basic education in South Africa. Journal of Education, 39

Statistics South Africa. (1996). General population census. Pretoria, South Africa: Author.

Youngman, F. 1986. Adult Education as socialist pedagogy. London: Croom Helm.

Sheared V & Sissel A, 2001. Making Space: Merging Theory and Practice in Adult Education Publisher: Bergin and Garvey, Westport, CT
Terblanche , S. 2008 The developmental state in South Africa: The difficult road ahead.

WPJ/1994, White Paper on reconstruction and Development, Notice No, 16058, Parliament of The Republic of South Africa, Cape Town

Chidrens Development Cyp Core 3.1

Social and Emotional behaviour from 0-19years:

From birth a baby can respond to touch and sound, will recognise a parent or carers voice and will stare at bright shiny objects. Even from a few months old they will smile and engage with their carer and by 4 months can vocalise by ???cooing??™ and ???babbling. From 6 months old an infant will become more interested in social interaction, although that depends on the amount of time spent with other children and his/hers personality, they will also have a fear of strangers and distress at the separation of a parent or carer. By the time they are 9 months old an infant can recognise familiar and unfamiliar faces. From 1 year ???temper tantrums??™ may have begun. They become more demanding and assertive and can express rage at being told ???no??™, they have no idea of sharing and a strong sense of ???mine??™.
From 2-4 years a child is learning to be separated from a parent or carer for short periods of time i.e.: nursery or playgroup which then gives them more social awareness. Some will play in groups of 2 or 3 and will be able to share ideas. Most children between this age group may have close friends and will still play with both genders.
By 4-7 a child should have started school and will be able to enjoy their independence although still needing comfort and reassurance. By now a good sense of self-awareness (both positive and negative) will have been developed. These include fears such as ???things under the bed??™ and ???ghosts??™. Children around this age are able to form firm friendships and have begun to play in separate *** groups, they are fairly confident and know the difference between right and wrong.
7-11 year olds are by now starting to understand more about the world and where they belong. Their friendships become very important and are mostly of the same sex. Children of this age become concerned of what people think of them and can often become unsure about changes in settings. Strong signs of independence from parents and family also start to show.
From the age of 11-16 a young person will be going through a huge transition in his/her life (both physically and mentally). Their bodies are starting to change which can affect self-esteem and confidence, peer pressure can become a significant influence. Young adolescents become more independent and want to spend more time with friends than family. Mood swings and confrontation become more apparent and the opposite *** becomes of more interest. Between this ages a young person could start to think about their future and what they could achieve.
Between the ages of 16-19 a young person will have developed more of an understanding about life, will be able to give good reasons for their choices and express their own views. Relationships with their parents will have improved although they will still want to spend more time with their friends. As adolescents become more aware of their strengths and weaknesses and will have started to create their own personal identity in society.

Physical Development from 0-19 years (Gross and Fine Motor Skills)

As a newborn, infants are showing signs of physical development. They can move their head and limbs, will start to grasp fingers and if held in an upright position use their legs in a stepping movement. By 6 months old an infant can roll from their backs onto their stomachs and push their head, chest and neck off the floor. By 1 year they could be sitting alone without support, reach out for toys and could also be mobile through crawling or shuffling. By this age a child will have started to show hand preference, can click two cubes together and will place the cubes in a box when shown how to. At 18 months a child may be able to walk alone, will push and pull toys when walking and are able to kick, roll and throw a ball. Some children are capable of using a spoon, turn a handle of a door and pull off their shoes.
Between the ages of 2 and 4 year a child will have greatly improved both their gross and fine motor skills. Most young children can jump off the ground with both feet. They can walk up and down stairs with both feet on one step and run without falling. Some children may also be able to pedal a tricycle, aim, throw and catch a large ball and walk on their tiptoes. Toddlers may also be able to follow a simple dancing rhythm. Fine motor skills of a young child between 2 and 4 years may include drawing circles and dots, drawing faces and turning a single page in a book. They are capable of using a spoon to feed themselves, can thread large beads and undo buttons. By the time a child is 4 they are capable of drawing more detailed pictures of people and can cut around an object with scissors.
From the ages of 4-7 a child??™s fine motor skills may include; putting together a 12 piece jigsaw and are able to button and unbutton their own clothes. By 5 years they are learning to form letters and some are capable of writing their own name with no support. At around 7 years old a child is able to control a pencil in a small area and accurately use a pair of scissors. Some children may have a better understanding of making intricate models. Gross motor skills for a 4~7 year old can include jumping, riding a bicycle. They are able to run quickly, be skilled enough to hit a ball accurately with a bat and balance on a wall or beam. Some children may be capable of roller skating and get up without using their hands for support.
Both skills (gross and motor) are being enhanced by the time a child has reached the age of 11. They will have improved on the physical skills they have already developed. Their body strength will have increased along with their balance and coordination. Children will have increased in both weight and height and some young girls from as young as 8, puberty may have begun. Breasts may start to develop and their menstruation cycle begins. Young adolescents??™ fine motor skills will have enhanced and concentration can be held for longer which enables them to perform more complex tasks. Some children may have developed talents such as music, dancing and playing a musical instrument e.g. piano, cello or violin. A child??™s writing will have improved and should now be learning how to write using ???joined up writing??™.
During adolescence, young people go through many changes as they move from childhood into teenagers. Between the ages of 11-16 a young girls breasts will have started to develop and will have fully developed between 12-18 years old. A girls menstrual cycle may start as early as 12 and as late as 15. Pubic, armpit and underarm hair will grow equivalent to that of an adults at around 13-14 years old. Boys may begin to notice that their testicles and scrotum are growing and by the age of 16 or 17 their genitals are usually at their adult size. Pubic as well as armpit, leg, chest and facial hair begins to grow at about age 12 and is equivalent to that of an adult about 15 to 16 years. Physically, teenagers become much stronger and develop gross motor skills through a wide range of sports. Fine motor skills could consist of knitting, sewing, along with arts and crafts. By the time an adolescent has reached 19 years old, they could be sexually active and have children themselves. Some could be taller than their parents. A lot of teenagers who are going through these changes could be worried about personal image i.e. weight issues and how they look.

Intellectual and Communication Development 0-19 years

From birth to 3 years an infant will be capable of a vast amount of communication and intellectual skills. From birth they will cry when hungry, tired or distressed and can stop crying at the sound of a voice. A baby can respond differently to changes in the tone of a voice and will laugh and chuckle when being spoken to by a parent or carer. Infants can blink in reaction to bright lights and turn their heads to a soft light. By 6 months old a child can focus on small objects close by and reach out to grasp them. By the time a child has reached 1 year old he/she will know their name and can understand around 20 words e.g. cup, dog, dinner, as well as being able to understand a simple message such as ???clap hands??™ and ???where are your shoes??™. A 1 year old child will deliberately drop a toy and watch it fall and look in the correct place for toys that have rolled out of sight. A small child can build a tower of 3 blocks when shown; they are also able to turn several pages of a book and can point to a named object as well as parts of a body. By 18 months a child can make simple sentences and will have used more than 200 words by the time they have reached age 2. At 3 years a child can paint using a large brush, will also be competent enough to draw a man with a head and cut using scissors. Verbally, a 3 year should be able to count to 10 and can hold a simple conversation.

Vocally, a 3-4 year old child is able to understand the concept of questions and can ask ???why??™, ???what??™ and ???how??™ They will know different parts of the body and are able to name different animals. Between 4-5 a child speech is fluent and they could be capable of giving you their full name, age and birthday. Some may even be able to give you their address. A few children can copy accents they have heard. Intellectually, a child between 4-8 years old can copy a square shape and write a range of letters; some spontaneously. They will understand the difference between heavy and light. Writing develops and by the age of 8, speech should be fluent and number of children may well be bi-lingual. By now a child should be reading with considerable ease and writing simple compositions. At 12 years, children are comfortable in producing intelligent thought out work and have the ability to transfer information from one situation and use it in another. Several children may be experiencing preference in subjects at school.

At 12-16, a young adolescent will be entering a crucial stage in their lives, most will be making a transition from junior school to secondary school, there they will develop the ability to use their initiative e.g. taking options at school and may have a clear preference to arts or science. Teenagers become less sociable towards their parents and peers. Communication becomes less and more aggressive. At this age it is important for a young adolescent to fit in and not appear different from his/her peers therefore image and personal appearance becomes more important.

Between 16-19 years of age young adolescents begin to think about their future. For some, 6th form or college may be an option; others may choose not to pursue further education and go to work. Adolescents develop the ability to speak rather than to ???act out??™ and relationships with parents and peers improve and become more honest and open. Peer group relationships may well be replaced by individual friendships and by this age a number of youths could be experiencing intimate relationships and a small amount may have children themselves

Global Issues Water Shortage and Child Mortality

Global issues:
Water shortage and Child Mortality

The world today is more interconnected than is has ever been before. We live in a globalized world, and we talk about a world community. Countries are dependent on each other, mostly through trade, but also through alliances, like NATO. Foreign policies are becoming more and more important, the relationships with the rest of the world is crucial. In our globalized world there are many pressing issues on mankind. Issues that are global, because they affect us all. Issues like war, terrorism, health and the environment are important to all of us, and are not easily solved. Usually one issue affects another issue, thus solving one can often help solving another. In this article I shall focus on two global issues, child mortality and water shortage. I wish to look at the importance of them both, and the connection between the two. Can solving one improve the other

Water is the most important thing for life on earth. Within a few days without it you would die. Humans are utterly dependent on water, and water shortage is therefore always a pressing issue. With population growth, growth within the economy and urbanisation, the human population is putting more pressure on the worlds water reserves. Water shortage is a grave problem for a great part of the world population, and will not cease to be a problem in the nearest future. The Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change(IPCC) have portended that the amount of people under stress from water shortage will double within 2050[1]. 33 per cent of the world population are considered to be under water stress already, and the percentage is likely to increase to 60 per cent within the previously mentioned year. The numbers prove how extremely pressing the issue of water shortage is. It could, in fact, affect more than half of the worlds population.

The current situation of water shortage has been named the ???water crisis??? by the United Nations[2]. It seems a suitable name when 884 million people lack good access to drinking water, and 2.5 billion lack water for sanitation and disposal usage[3][4]. The Food and Agriculture Organization disagree. They say that the ???water crisis??? is an inappropriate name, because the situation has in fact improved, with 2 billion having gained access to water, from a safe source, since 1990[5]. Bjorn Lomborg, the author of The Skeptical Environmentalist, also disagrees. Seeing as the proportion of people with access to safe water has increased from 30 per cent in 1970 to 84 per cent in 2004, he might have a point. [6] However, what the situation of water shortage should be called, or how exactly how severe it is, can always be discussed. The fact of the matter is that water shortage is a pressing global issue, because 884 million people still does not have access to safe drinking water. Furthermore, the lack of water for sanitation purposes have great consequences, as well.

A famous Swedish geographical scientist was once asked if he thought the world had become a better place[7]. His answer was yes, and his argument was that child mortality had gone down. He thought this was important because the most horrible thing some one can experience is losing a child. This can of course be discussed, but losing a child is always tragic. Although child mortality might have gone down, the number of children dying is still a large one. Every day 29,000 children under the age of five dies, approximately 21 per minute[8]. Child mortality is therefore still a highly pressing global issue, an issue that will not disappear by itself. There are many causes for child mortality, but 70 per cent of them are diarrhoea, pneumonia, pre-term delivery, neonatal infection, malaria and lack of oxygen at birth[9]. However, are any of these closely linked to water shortage Could improvement in the issue of water shortage have a direct influence on child mortality

The World Health Organization have estimated that 28 per cent of children that dies under the age of five, dies because of poor sanitation and unsafe water[10]. Especially when it comes to diarrhoea and infections, is water a matter of great importance. Child mortality could be reduced with 28 per cent if water had been available to those in need of it. Poor sanitation is largely dependent on access to water, which is one of the reasons why water shortage is such a serious issue. It goes the other way as well, safe water resources relies on sanitation. Drinking water pollution is also a cause of many child deaths[11].

The areas with the highest per cent of child mortality are also the poorest areas. Developed countries like Norway and Sweden have low child mortality rates, mainly because of good health systems and general wealth. However, the two countries did not always have such high standards in health. Norway and Sweden were once poor countries, with much higher child mortality rates than today. Their development can be studied to foresee the development in poorer countries. Swedish scientists from The Centre of Health Equity Studies have done exactly that. In their report ??? Equitable Child Health Interventions: The Impact of Improved Water and Sanitation on Inequalities in Child Mortality in Stockholm, 1878 to 1925??? they discovered that improvement in water and sanitation caused lower child mortality[12].

Water shortage and child mortality are closely connected, as I have attempted to show in this article. Because diseases that lead to child mortality are worsened by lack of water, improving the water situation would lead to lower child mortality. Another element is sanitation. Water is significant when it comes to sanitation, since bad sanitation leads to higher child mortality. Both issues are highly important, and affects a great number of people; an all to great number at that. Improving the worlds water situation would lead to lower child mortality rates, and should therefore be a top priority. If more people could get access to safe water and sanitation, the effects would be profound. How this is to be done, however, is another, and more difficult, matter, than concluding that it should be done.

Footnotes Nations statement on water crisis
2. WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (2008), Progress in Drinking-water and Sanitation: special focus on sanitation. (MDG Assessment Report 2008) p. 25
Updated Numbers: WHO-UNICEF JMP Report 2008
United Nations statement on water crisis
Bjorn Lomborg (2001), The Skeptical Environmentalist (Cambridge University Press), ISBN 0521010683, p. 22
Skavlan ??“ Norwegian TV-programme

Other sources
International Focus ??“ Heian m.m, Gyldendal, 2007

[ 1 ].
[ 2 ]. United Nations statement on water crisis
[ 3 ]. WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (2008), Progress in Drinking-water and Sanitation: special focus on sanitation. (MDG Assessment Report 2008) p. 25
[ 4 ]. Updated Numbers: WHO-UNICEF JMP Report 2008
[ 5 ]. United Nations statement on water crisis
[ 6 ]. Bjorn Lomborg (2001), The Skeptical Environmentalist (Cambridge University Press), ISBN 0521010683, p. 22
[ 7 ]. Skavlan
[ 8 ].
[ 9 ].
[ 10 ].
[ 11 ].
[ 12 ].


The areas of development I am writing about are cognitive and language development cognitive development are information processing, intelligence, reasoning, language development, and memory. Speech and language are the tools that people use to communicate or share thoughts, ideas, and emotions. . One of the factors that influence children??™s development is their genetic makeup or genes. Some people refer to this as nature genes are the genetic material we pass onto our children. Children are born with their genes in place. These genes act like a blueprint for what characteristics a child may have. The other factor that influences child development is the environment. This includes experiences children have in their home, school and community environments. Some people refer to this as nurture the environment can either improve or harm a childs genetic blueprint. According to Tina Bruce ???Intellectual and cognitive development (the development of thinking and ideas) cannot be separated from all the other areas of development??? (2007, p79) All areas of development are combined and cannot be separated.
Cognitive and language development
Newborn babies developed language skills before they were born they recognized new sounds when they were still in their mother??™s womb. The first things a baby uses to communicate with the outside world is smiling, crying and eye contact they smile when the mother does something that a baby likes. According to Carolyn Meggitt ???Babies make eye contact and cry to indicate need??? (Meggitt, C 2006, P10) Babies establish eye contact to communicate needs. They cry when they feel unpleasant or want something babies will also show excitement at the sound of approaching voices or footsteps a baby is attentive to sounds made by familiar voices and expresses what they need by crying in different ways. Babies are also beginning to use their voice and smiles when responding to familiar speech and may begin to coo in response to parents. At Three months babies will turn in the direction of a parent??™s voice and begin to laugh out loud and squeal in delight they can also vocalise tunefully to their self and others. Babies will try to mimic sounds and watches speakers mouths closely, they can also scream with annoyance and shout to attract attention. According to Penny Tassoni ???The first stage in the process of children learning to use a language is often referred to as the pre-linguistic stage. This is an important stage, because although babies are not able to use the rules and words of language, they seem to use this stage to learn about how to communicate??? (Tassoni, P, 2002, P211). Before babies learn spoken language, they can respond to sound and speech. During this phase, parents tend to speak? to infants in higher pitches and tones. This is known as motherese or baby talk and is the high-pitched, sing-song speech adults use to talk to children. At this age babies have discovered their hands and find them interesting and they often put them in their mouths. At Six months babies are very aware of every day sounds especially voices. A baby will now know their name and may respond when called and will begin to shout for attention wait for a response and shout again. They can also babble very loudly and can make double syllable sounds such as mama and dada and they are beginning to understand turn taking in conversations and will enjoy holding conversations. According to Carolyn Meggitt ???Babies enjoy communicating with sounds??? (Meggitt, C 2006, P41) Babies this age begin to enjoy communicate with the sounds they can make. At nine months babies are beginning to say simple words and their understanding of language are developing daily babbling becomes more like conversation and they watch the activities of others around them with great interest. According to Carolyn Meggitt ???Babies watch a toy being hidden and then look for it this shows that know that an object can exist even when it is no longer in sight??? (Object Permanence) (Meggitt, C 2002, P41) Babies now know that an object exists even when it is no longer in sight up until now if they can??™t see something, it doesn??™t exist in their world. This new skill is demonstrated when they watch a toy being hidden and then look for it; this shows they know it still exists even when they can??™t see it. Babies are starting to use jargon and may even respond to simple instructions and may understand a few simple words. At twelve months babies like to sing and can now say several words including no and can shake there head also they can communicate there needs by vocalising and pointing. Babies will listen to sound making toys and will repeat there an action to make these sounds again and are very curious, they may also know the names of various body parts such as nose, eyes and mouth. They also can wave their arms up and down meaning more or I like it .At eighteen months Babies will listen to others when they speak to them and often echo the last words of the speaker??™s sentences. This is known as echolalia the automatic repetition of vocals made by another person. They can also point to and name some familiar pictures and sentences and recognise small world toys. They may join two words together and also they will enjoy nursery rhymes and try to join in. At this age babies will talk to self continually and also asks continually why and what the vocabulary is increasing but still many mistakes in their grammar they also use their own name to refer to themselves. At thirty six months longer sentences are being used and also large vocabulary now they ask many questions and are beginning to listen with interest to general conversations around them they can recite simple nursery rhymes and carry out a good conversation and the speech is clear and understandable. A toddler may be able to match two or three primary colours and count up to ten According to Carolyn Meggitt ???Children count up to ten, but do not appreciate quantity beyond two or three??? (Meggitt , C 2006, P75) Children who can count up to ten don??™t actually understand and cant identify, the quantities theyre naming. All babies develop at their own individual pace and may be advanced in some things and delayed in others.
Children aged three years of age are beginning to use three to five word sentences and can name at least ten familiar objects. Three year olds enjoy being read to and will repeat simple rhymes and stories. According to Carolyn Meggitt??? Children may enjoy jokes and plays on words??? (Meggitt, C, 2006, P84) Children think about language they use and find it can be funny.
Children will play spontaneously with two or three children in a group and engage in fantasy play and will try to make others laugh .At four years children of age have a large vocabulary and use good grammar they often talk about action in conversation and use regular past tenses of verbs and start to recognise patterns and the way some words are formed.
At four years they know there age and the town where they live, and like to do things for themselves and may even separate from their parents for a short time without crying. According to Carolyn Meggitt ???Children often confuse fact with fiction??? (2006, P84) It is very hard for a young child to understand the difference between fact and fiction. If you read a story about the three little pigs, for example the child knows that pigs dont really talk and build houses. To them this is no different from pretending that something happened that someone else spilled the juice, or broke the plate. At five years of age children will be able to recognize opposites, define objects by their use, and use relatively good sentence structure and understand the rules of conversation and is able to talk and then listen the language skills of five-year-olds are well developed. This is the time for learning the fundamentals of reading, writing, and basic math. Children are eager to learn and have a strong desire to please adults five-year-olds are creative and enthusiastic problem solvers. Children may believe that objects have feelings. For example, a child of this age might feel sorry for a doll or teddy that has fallen on the floor. According to Carolyn Meggitt??? Children talk about the past, present and future, with a good sense of time ???. (2006, P91) Children can understand the concept of today, tomorrow, and yesterday for example it??™s my birthday tomorrow. At six years of age children can pronounce the majority of sounds of their own language and talk fluently and with confidence. Six year olds are steadily developing literacy skills reading and writing and will start to read for their selves although they will still enjoy it when a parent reads them poems and stories. According to Carolyn Meggitt ???Children begin to develop concepts of quantity, length, measurement, distance, area, time, volume, capacity and weight ???(Meggitt, C, 2006, P99) Children are beginning to form new concepts and are fascinated with measurement concepts.?  They are constantly measuring how big, how tall, how much, how far, and how heavy they are compared to their friends. At seven years children enjoy having the opportunity to share their knowledge with others. They display a longer attention span and the ability to understand less-detailed directions and last-minute changes. Seven-year-olds are curious and frequently ask adults questions to satisfy their need to know. The language skills of seven-year-olds reflect the impact language and literacy is having on them. Mathematically, seven-year-olds have strong number sense and estimation skills. Children this age can do simple addition and subtraction and can apply strategies necessary to solve related word problems. According to Carolyn Meggitt???Children are able to conserve number- for example they know that there are ten sweets whether they are pushed close together or apart??? ???(Meggitt, C,2006, P107) Children can now conserve and think logically
Jean Piaget was born in 1896 in Switzerland and he was a Swiss developmental psychologist his view of how childrens minds work and develop has been enormously influential, particularly in education. Piaget introduced the theory of staged development and indentified four stages in that process Sensorimotor applies to 0 to 2 year olds, preoperational to 3 to 7 year olds, concrete operational to 8-11 year olds, and formal operational to those aged 11 to 15. During the sensorimotor stage 0-2 toddlers understanding and knowledge is learned from action and senses. Aged 3 to 7 preoperational, egocentrism is typical of a childs personality. Everything revolves around them they feel they are the centre of everything. Dont confuse this with selfishness it is simply a natural stage that the vast majority of young people progress through as part of their natural development, according to Piaget. The next stage of the developmental theory is concrete operational where logic begins to form. Children who are in this category are increasingly aware of others and the world around them. When they arrive at an age between 11 to 15 formal operations, they will begin to reflect on their current life experiences and what they wish to achieve as they age. Combined, these ideas are what Piagets developmental theory is built around. According to Maureen Daly et al ???The legacy of Paget??™s work has been to encourage practitioners to provide a stimulating environment that encourages children to learn and to continually develop their understanding and view of the world around them.???(Daly, M 2006, p 46) Piaget has been a great influence in the way practitioners develop and provide stimulating environments in turn the children learn and continually develop their own understanding.
Lev Vygotsky was born in Russia in 1896 and died in 1947 he believed in the Social Development Theory and that language develops from social interaction. Vygotsky proposed that children learn more from their culture or their interaction with humans than from their environment alone. He also is known for the theory of scaffolding which is working together to help each other learn. He also developed the ZPD or zone of proximal development. The zone of proximal development occurs when a child needs less or no assistance anymore, because true learning has taken place. This is an important concept that relates to the difference between what a child can achieve independently and what a child can achieve with guidance and support. Vygotsky??™s theories still very much influence what we do today. According to Maureen Daly et al???Vygotsky??™s work has encouraged the modern practitioner to focus on providing challenge for the child through activities and experience that stretch the child to think above their capabilities.??? (Daly, M 2006, p 58) Vygotsky??™s work has influenced practitioners and they are encouraged to engage children in challenging learning tasks that involve language and social interaction.
Piaget??™s theories have influenced practice by providing activities and experiences to encourage children to adapt and change their existing view of the world. Activities provided and are age and stage appropriate and support thinking and can encourage conservation such as water play and counting games. Opportunities for pretend and imaginative play are given to help increase the child??™s use of symbols Schools are now promoting active learning environments so that the children learn from a first hand experience .According to Learning in the Foundation Phase ???The Foundation Phase is about enhancing the learning experiences which enable children to be creative, imaginative and to have fun whilst learning ???(Learning in the Foundation Phase 2007, P4) The foundation phase places great emphasis on children learning by doing. Young children will be given more opportunities to gain first hand experiences through play and active involvement rather than by completing exercises in books. Piaget??™s theories have had a great impact on learning by supporting children to see other people??™s point of view and the understanding of sharing and the understanding of rules.

Vygotsky??™s theories have influenced practice by giving opportunities for a balance of child and teacher led activities, which are carefully planned and are developmentally appropriate.
The Foundation Phase uses Vygotskys research and work today to outline our effective practice in supporting young childrens development and learning. According to Penny Tassoni ???Vygotsky??™s influence today can be seen through a curriculum where the child is based at the centre??? (Tassoni P, 2007, P 284) The Foundation Phase curriculum has been influenced by Vygotsky where children are at the centre of learning.
Social interaction also plays an important role in the development of children. The foundation phase emphasises the importance of play and playful interaction. According to The Foundation Phase ???Play is not only crucial to the way children become self-aware and the way in which they learn the rules of social behaviour; it is also fundamental to intellectual development.??? (The Foundation Phase 2007, P6) Play is an important part of social and language development. Vygotsky??™s Social interaction theory influences circle time which encourages social and emotional development. Circle time is a time for the children to gather together to share their personal feelings and ideas about anything that is important to them circle time Promotes positive relationships and creates a caring and respectful ethos and it helps children develop self-esteem and self-confidence. According to Penny Tassoni ???Circle time is a useful technique to use with older children and young people.??? (Tassoni, P, 2007, P141) Circle time can be introduced to all children but is more effective when they are older.
Vygotsky developed the theory called the zone of proximal development and is the difference between what a child can do without help and what he or she can do with help he claimed that that the ability to learn through guidance by adults was a basic detail of human understanding. This is also known as scaffolding, scaffolding essentially means that a more experienced person offers support, encouragement and guidance to a child as appropriate. The Scaffolding Theory was first developed by cognitive psychologist, Jerome Bruner in the late 1950s. Bruner used the concept as it applied to how young children acquired language skills.

Three observations included as appendices
The three observations show that a Child M is a happy confident child whose skills are advanced for her age and overall demonstrates good cognitive skills for her age. According to Joanne bushell ???Child M has shown she has the ability to read independently and confidently and is showing advanced reading skills for her age??? (Checklist Observation 2010). The child that was observed shows advanced skills when reading. Child M has displayed many skills such as language, memory and concentration and all of these are within the developmental norms for the stage the child is at. Child M can count up to twenty confidently and shows good understanding of the concept of number. Child M also a confident artist .According to Joanne Bushell ???I then asked Child M to draw me a house she then very quickly began to draw a house with four windows a door and a roof??? ??? (Checklist Observation 2010 ) Child M draws with basic detail. Child M has typical imagination and creative skills and displays them regularly whilst in the role play corner .According to Joanne Bushell??? Child M also displayed imaginative and creativity skills when she was playing in the home corner she pretended to be a hairdresser styling another girls hair Child M used a pretend hairdryer and made sounds to imitate a hairdryer.???(Time sample Observation 2011)Child M displays typical imagination skills and enjoys imitating sounds.
From my observation I have discovered that child M cannot conserve, this is in line with Piaget who suggested that most children younger than seven would not be able to conserve. Child M is at the preoperational stage .Child M shows typical concentration skills and demonstrates this by remembering where her coat peg is .When child M answers the register she showed a clear understanding of the Welsh language.
The observations have shown me that child M has interests in role play and dressing up and uses her imagination to enact scenarios. Child M needs to practice conservation. I feel that child M is an auditory learner and understands what she has to do when spoken to.
The recommendations I feel would help Child M are;
Recommendation 1
What Visualization Game, Materials needed are assorted objects e.g. crayons, small toys Lego a tray, tea towel, small sack and paper and pencil. The objects are placed on a tray and covered with a tea towel the players have one minute to look at the tray and then it is covered with the tea towel. Players must then remember all the objects they can remember, the winner is the one who has the most correct items. This game can also be played by using the sense of touch. Place the objects in a small sack with only enough room at the opening for a hand to go through. Each player has one minute to place his or her hand in the bag and then try to recognize as many objects as possible. Again, the player who has written down the most correct items is the winner.
Why This game promotes the concentration and memory skills. and helps to improve your concentration, focus and attention span.
Recommendation 2
What Archimedes Bathtub – A long time ago, a man named Archimedes lived in a country called Greece. Archimedes was a mathematician, a person who likes numbers and learns about math. One day, Archimedes decided to take a bath. When he sat down in the tub, he saw the water level in the tub rise. He realized he had just discovered something very important, a way to tell how much space an object takes up. Archimedes discovered how to measure volume and got so excited that he jumped out of the tub, forgot to put on his clothes and ran down the street yelling “Eureka.” Archimedes spoke a language called Greek, and in Greek, eureka means “I found it!”, you will need a clear plastic shoebox or other rectangular container, coloured electrical tape, scissors, a waterproof doll that will fit in the shoebox, and water.
Why Children will learn that objects have volume by displacing water and about the famous mathematician who discovered how to measure volume. Accessed 04.03.2011
Recommendation 3
What 12 piece jigsaw puzzle provided by school or home
Why Children learn about shape and space and as they become older trial and error learning will decrease as they start to use reasoning skills to work out the position of the pieces.
I have used the checklist method which is designed to record the presence or absence of specific behaviours. They are easy to use and are especially helpful when many different areas need to be observed. They often include lists of specific behaviours to look for while observing .The next method I used was the time sample method which involves recording at regular intervals what a child is doing this method also focuses on behaviours taking place within certain time periods. Different intervals of time are used provide as much information as possible. The other method I used was the anecdotal method which is used to develop an understanding of a child??™s behaviour. Anecdotal records do not require charts or special settings they record what happened in a factual, objective manner. According to Penny Tassoni ???There are many different ways of collecting information about children and young people. Each technique will have advantages but also limitations and so it is useful if you can learn to use several ???(2007, P, 90) There are lots of different observation methods each of them are presented and used differently to record the observed information.
During my observations I protected the identity of the child and I have not disclosed any personal details about the child and their family. All of the information I have gathered will be treated as confidential and not made public to anyone without parents or tutors consent. The 1998 Data Protection Act was passed by Parliament to control the way information is handled and to give legal rights to people who have information stored about them. According to Christine Hobart ???You will become aware of much confidential information concerning children and their families. ???(2006, P4) Occasionally Practitioners in schools will become aware of information about children which is confidential or private to the child or their family.
During an observation it is very important to understand the need for confidentiality this protects the welfare of the child and family. Any information relating to the child and their families should be kept in secure storage. Any information gathered should be shared with parents and other professionals unless there are child protection issues. According to Childcare and the law 2006 ???The Data Protection Act 1984 gives all individuals the right to access any personal information that has been compiled about them??? (2006, P24).The data protection Act 1984 gives people important rights, including the right to know what information is being held about them .Objectivity is also important during observations When observing what a child is doing you need to be objective. This means that you need to describe exactly what is happening without making assumptions about why they are occurring. Describe what the child is doing, how they are doing it, when they are doing it and with whom. Not why. To be an objective observer you need to be unbiased and avoid stereotypes and remain professional. According to Christine Hobart ???You must be sure that your observations are always a true record of what is taking place and that you are not tempted to add anything which might make them more interesting and easier to interpret.???(2009, P8) Practitioners must only write down what they observe at the time of observing and not make anything up about the Childs skills. The reliability of observations must be consistent and fair. You need to observe exactly what you see and hear. Practitioners must remain professional at all times and keep personal beliefs to one side .Practitioners must ensure that their behaviour is professional at all times, and remember that they are setting an example to the children and representing the setting to the parents. The personal attitudes and values of the practitioner should be kept private and not interfere with their work with children. The rights of the children and parents must be remembered when completing observations the 1989 United Nations Convention on the rights of the child sets out fifty four articles the articles that involve observing children are;
Article 12
Children have the right to say what they think should happen when adults are making decisions that affect them, and have their opinions taken into account. ??“ Children have their own rights and can have a say in any decisions that affect them and this will be noted.
Article 13
Children have the right to receive and to share information, as long as the information is not damaging to them or others.-Children can have access to information and receive infomation about themselves has long as it not harmful to themselves or their families.
Article 16
Children have a right to privacy. The law should protect them from attacks against their way of life, their good name, their families and their homes.- Children have the right to privacy and the right to protection from attacks against there families chosen lifestyle.
A practical guide to child observation and assessment 4th edition (2009 Christine Hobart, Nelson Thomas P, 2)
For observations to be valid, the most appropriate recording method must be used. Children change very quickly and observations are only valid for short time practitioners must use the information as soon a possible for planning short term. According to Observing Children Welsh Assembly Government 2008??? Observation and assessment enables practitioners to: know the individual child and highlight his/her strengths, interests and needs??? Observing children can help a practitioner get to know the child more and be aware of their needs and interests.
As a student practitioner I have used three different types of observation methods the checklist method, time sample method and anecdotal method. One of the advantages of a checklist is that there is no time limit in collecting the data. The information can be quickly recorded anytime during program hours. In addition, checklists are easy to use, efficient, and can be used in many situations. Data from checklists can be easily analyzed. A disadvantage of using a checklist, however, is the lack of detailed information. Checklists lack the information of the more descriptive narrative. Because of the Layout only particular behaviours are noted. The advantages of a time sample observation are that a precise collection of data can be made and it is quick and easy to use. It can also reveal unexpected patterns of behaviour. The observer can record more then one child at one time. The disadvantages are that allocating the time to complete the task it may need to take place over a long period of time ands also the need to be aware of the time is also a disadvantage. There are advantages and disadvantages using the anecdotal record. An important advantage is that it is the easiest method of use since it requires no special setting or time frame. Anecdotal records can provide running records over time showing evidence of a child??™s growth and development. There are also disadvantages with using anecdotal records. A complete picture may not be provided and records may not always be accurate and it may be difficult to keep up with what is going on. Childrens identity should remain anonymous and in some settings, if parents haven??™t already given their permission, permission has to be sought from the setting and parents/carers. The children??™s behaviour can change if they know you are observing them. According to Christine Hobart et, al ???Observing a child??™s interests and strengths allows the staff in the establishment to plan activities that will extend further development and add to the child??™s enjoyment and stimulation.??? (Hobart C, 2009, p 16)
Through observing children as they play you will be able to build up a picture of their learning and development. You will be able to recognize their interests and be able to offer individual learning plans. You will be able to evaluate their progress and be able to offer teaching specific to the child. The effective provision of pre school education project is research about the effects of pre school education it investigated the effects of pre-school education and care on children??™s development for children aged 3 – 7 years old. The EPPE project used observations as part of its key findings
Piaget developed his cognitive theory by observing children (some of whom were his own children). Using a standard question or set of questions as a starting point, he followed the childs train of thought and allowed the questioning to be flexible. Piaget believed that childrens spontaneous comments provided valuable clues to understanding their thinking.