TDA 2.1: Child and young person development
2.1/1/1 Describe the expected pattern of children and young peoples development from birth to 19 years, to include:

Age | Physical Development | Communication & Intellectual Development | Social, Emotional & Behavioural Development |
0-1 year | Gross motor skills – At 1week-4 weeks, the baby lies supine. The baby lies with head turned to one side when placed prone. The head will lag if pulled to sitting position. – At 4-8 weeks, the baby can turn from side to back, lift the head briefly from the prone position, arm and leg movements are jerky and uncontrolled and there is head lag if the baby is pulled to sitting position. – At 8-12 weeks, the babys head is in a central position when lying supine, can lift head and chest off bed in prone position, almost no head lag in sitting position, the legs can kick vigorously. – At 4-6 months, the baby is beginning to use a palmar grasp and can transfer objects from hand to hand. Every thing is taken to the mouth. The baby moves his or her head around to follow people and objects. – At 6-9 months, the baby can roll from front to back, may attempt to crawl but will often end up sliding backwards, can sit without support for longer periods of time. | Communication development – At 1week-4 weeks, the baby responds to sounds, especially familiar voices. The baby quietens when picked up. The baby makes eye contact, move his or her eyes towards the direction of sound. The baby cries to indicate need, e.g. hunger, dirty nappy, etc. – At 4-8 weeks, the baby recognises the carer and familiar objects. The baby makes non-crying noises such as cooing and gurgling. – At 8-12 weeks, the baby is still distressed by sudden loud noises. The baby often sucks or licks lips when he or she hears sound of food preparation. The baby shows excitement at sound of approaching footsteps of voices. During the first 3 months, the baby is comforted by the voices of those who are close to them and will turn especially to the voices or close family members. – At 4-6 months, the baby becomes more aware of others so he or she communicates more and more. The baby imitates sounds he or she can hear, and reacts to the tone of someones voice, begins to laugh and | – At 4-8 weeks, the baby will smile in response to an adult, enjoys sucking. The baby turns to regard nearby speakers face. The baby turns to preferred persons voice, recognises face and hands of preferred adult. – At 8-12 weeks, the baby shows enjoyment at caring routines such as bathtime. The baby responds with obvious pleasure to loving attention and cuddles. The baby fixes his or her eyes unblinkingly on carers face when feeding. The baby stays awake for longer periods of time. – At 4-6 months, the baby shows trust and security. The baby has recognise sleep patterns – At 6-9 months, the baby can manage to feed his- or herself using his or her fingers. The baby is now more wary of strangers. The baby might offer toys to others. The baby might show distress when his or her mother leaves. The baby typically begins to crawl, reach for objects and get to places and people. The baby is now more aware of other peoples feelings. For example, he or she may cry if their brother cries. |
Age | Physical Development | Communication & Intellectual Development | Social, Emotional & Behavioural Development |
0-1 year (cont.) | – At 9-12 months, the baby will be mobile- may be crawling, bear-walking, bottom-shuffling or ever walking. The baby can sit up on her own and lean forward to pick up things, may bounce in rhythm to music. Fine motor skills – At 1week-4weeks, the baby turns his or her head towards the light and stares at bright or shiny objects. The baby is fascinated by human faces and gazes attentively at carers face when fed or held, hands are usually tightly closed. the baby reacts to loud sounds. – At 4-8 weeks, the baby will use his or her hand to grasp the carers finger. – At 8-12 weeks, the baby moves his or her head to follow adult movements, watches his or her hands and plays with his or her fingers, wave his or her arms and bring his or her hands together over the body. The baby holds a rattle for a brief time before dropping it. – At 4-6 months, the baby has good head control and is beginning to sit with support, rolls over from back to side and is beginning to reach for objects, plays with his or her own feet when supine, holds his or her head up when pulled to sitting position. | squeal with pleasure. The baby begins to use vowels, consonants and syllable sounds, e.g. ah, ee aw. – At 6-9 months, babble becomes tuneful, begin to understand words, repeats sounds, raising their arms to be lifted up, using appropriate gestures. – At 9-12 months, the baby can follow simple instructions. Word approximations appear, e.g. mumma, dadda and bye-bye. The tuneful babble develops into jargon. The baby knows that words stand for people, objects, what they do and what happens. Intellectual development – At 1month-4months, the baby recognises differing speech sounds. By 3 months the baby can even imitate low- or high-pitched sounds. – At4-6 months, the baby links objects they know with the sound, e.g. mothers voice and her face. The baby knows the smell of his or her mother. The baby reaches for objects. The baby prefers complicated things to look at from 5-6 months. The baby is disturbed if he or she is shown several images of his or her mother at the same time. The baby can coordinate tracking, reaching, grasping and sucking. The baby | – At 9-12 months, the baby enjoys songs and action rhymes. The baby can drink from a cup with help. The baby will play alone for long periods. The baby has and shows definite likes and dislikes at mealtimes and bedtimes. The baby likes to look at him- or herself in a mirror. The baby imitates other people but there is often a time lapse, so that he or she waves after the person has gone. The baby cooperates when being dressed. |
Age | Physical Development | Communication & Intellectual Development | Social, Emotional & Behavioural Development |
0-1 year (cont.) | – At 6-9 months, the baby is beginning to use a pincer grasp with thumb and index finger. The baby transfers toys from one hand to the other and looks for fallen objects. Everything is explored by putting it in his or her mouth. – At 9-12 months, the babys pincer grasp is now well developed and he or she can pick things up, pull them towards him or her, can manage spoons and finger foods well. The baby can poke with one finger and will point to desired objects. The baby can clasp hands and imitate adults actions. | can develop favourite tastes in food and recognise differences by 5 months. – At 6-9 months, the baby understands signs, e.g. the bib means that food is coming. From 8-9 months the baby knows objects exist when they have gone out of sight, is fascinated by the way objects move. – At 9-12 months, the baby is beginning to develop images. Memory develops, can remember the past, can anticipate the future. This gives the baby some understanding of routine daily sequences, e.g. after a feed, changing, and a sleep with teddy. The baby imitates actions, sounds, gestures and moods after and event is finished. | |
1 year – 2 years | Gross motor skills – At 15 months, The baby probably walks alone, with feet wide apart and arms raised to maintain balance. The baby can probably manage stairs and steps. The baby can get to standing without help. – At 18 months, the child walks confidently, can kneel, squat, climb and carry things around, can climb forwards onto an adult chair and then turn round to sit. | Communication development – The child begins to talk with words or sign language. The child enjoys trying to sing as well as listening to songs and rhymes. – Books with pictures are of great interest. The child points at and often names parts of their body, objects, people and pictures in books. – The child echoes the last part of what others say (echolalia). – The child begins waving his or her arms up and sown, which might mean start again, or I like it. Gestures develop alongside words. | -The child begins to have a longer memory. – The child develops a sense of identity (I am me). – The child expresses his or her needs in words and gestures. – The child enjoys being able to walk, and is eager to try to get dressed- Me do it!. – This child is aware when others are fearful or anxious for him or her as he or she climbs on and off chairs, and so on. |
Age | Physical Development | Communication & Intellectual Development | Social, Emotional & Behavioural Development |
1 year – 2 years (cont.) | Fine motor skills – At 15 months, the baby can build with a few bricks and arrange toys on the floor. The baby holds a crayon in palmar grasp and turns several pages of a book at once. The baby can point to desired objects. – At 18 months, the child can thread large beads, uses pincer grasp to pick up small objects, can build a tower of several cubes, can scribble to and fro on paper. | Intellectual development – The child understands the names of objects and can follow simple instructions. – The child learns about things through trial and error. – The child uses toys or objects to represent things in real life e.g. using a doll as a baby. – The child begins to scribble on paper. – The child often talks to him- or herself playing. | |
2 -3 years | Gross motor skills – The child is very mobile and can run safety, can climb up onto furniture, can walk up and downstairs (usually 2 feet to a step). The child tries to kick a ball with some success but cannot catch yet. Fine motor skills – The child can draw circles, lines and dots, using preferred hand, can pick up tiny objects using a fine pincer grasp, can build tower of 6 or more blocks (bricks), with longer concentration span. – The child enjoys picture books and turns pages singly. | Communication development – The child over-extends the use of a word, e.g. all animals are called doggie. The child uses phrases doggie-gone and the child calls him- or herself by name. The child can follow a simple instruction or request. The child increasingly wants to share songs, dance, conversations, finger rhymes. Intellectual development – The child has improved memory skills. The child can hold a crayon and move it up and down. – The child understand cause and effect, e.g. if something is dropped, it might break. – The child talks about an absent object when reminded of it: e.g. seeing an empty plate, they say biscuit. | – The child is impulsive and curious about their environment. – Pretend play develops rapidly when adults encourage it. – Beginning to say how he or she is feeling. – The child can dress him- or herself. – The child plays with other children, but may not share his or her toys with them. |
Age | Physical Development | Communication & Intellectual Development | Social, Emotional & Behavioural Development |
3-4 years | Gross motor skills – The child can jump from low step, walk backwards and sideways, stand and walk on tiptoe and stand on one foot. – The child rides a tricycle, using pedals. – The child can climb stairs with one foot on each step- and downwards with two feet per step. Fine motor skills – The child can control a pencil using thumb and first two fingers ??“ a dynamic tripod grasp, enjoy painting with a large brush. – The child can use scissors to cut paper. – The child can copy shape. | Communication development – The child begins to use tenses and sentences. – The child might say two times instead of twice, I goed there instead of I went there. The child loves to chat and ask questions. – The child enjoyed much more complicated stories. – The child may stutter because he/she is trying so hard to tell adults things. Intellectual development The child develops symbolic behaviour: – The child talks, pretend plays (often talking to him- or herself) – The child becomes fascinated by cause and effect; the child is continually trying to explain what goes on in the world. – The child can identify common colours, may confuse blue with green. | – The child is beginning to develop a gender role. – The child makes friends. – The child learns to negotiate, give and take through experimenting with feeling powerful, having a sense of control, and through quarrels with other children. – The child is easily afraid, e.g. of the dark. The child imagines all sorts of things. |
4-5 years | Gross motor skills – The child may be able to walk along a line. – The child can catch, kick, throw and bounce a ball. – The child can bend at the waist to pick up objects from the floor. – The child enjoys climbing trees and frames. – The child can run up and down stairs, one foot per step. | Communication development – The child asks why, when and how questions as he/she becomes more and more fascinated with the reasons for things. – Past, present and future tense are use more often. – The child can be taught to say his/her name, address and age. – The child delights in nonsense words that he/she makes up, and jokes using words. | – The child likes to be independent and is strongly self-willed. – The child shows a sense of humour. – The child can undress and dress him-/herself. – The child can wash and dry his/her hands and brush their teeth. |
Age | Physical Development | Communication & Intellectual Development | Social, Emotional & Behavioural Development |
4-5 years(cont.) | Fine motor skills – The child can build a tower of bricks and other constructions too. – The child can draw a recognisable person on request. – The child can thread small beads on a lace. | intellectual development – The child usually knows how to count- up to 20. – The child understand ideas such as more and fewer. – The child will recognise his/her own name when it it written down and can usually write it. – The child can think back and think forward much more easily than before. – The child often enjoys music and playing sturdy instruments, and joins in groups singing and dancing. | |
5-8 years | Gross motor skills – The child can play ball games. – The child can hop and run lightly on toes and can move rhythmically to music. – The child can skip. – The child has increased agility, muscle coordination and balance. – The child can jump off apparatus. Fine motor skills – The child may be able to thread a large-eyed needle and sew large stitches. – The child has good control over pencils and paintbrushes. He/she copies shapes. – The child can draw a person with detail, e.g. clothes and eyebrows. – The child can write letters of alphabet at school, with similar writing grip to an adult. | Communication development – The child tries to understand the meanings of words. The child talks confidently. – The child begins to be able to define objects by their function, e.g. What is a ball You bounce it. – The child begins to understand book language, and that stories have characters and a plot. – The child begins to realise that different situations require different ways of talking. Intellectual development – The child includes more detail in their drawings. – The child can usually write his/her own name. | – The child has developed a stable self-concept. – The child can hide their feelings once they can begin to control them. – The child can think of the feelings of others. – The child can take responsibility, e.g. helping younger children. |
Age | Physical Development | Communication & Intellectual Development | Social, Emotional & Behavioural Development |
5-8 years (cont.) | | – Thinking becomes increasingly coordinated as the child is able to hold in mind more than one point of view at a time. – The child enjoys chanting and counting. The child can use his/her voice in different ways to play different characters in pretend play. | |
8-11 years | Gross motor skills – The child can ride a bicycle. – The child has increased strength and coordination. – The child plays energetic games and sports. – Children differ in physical maturity, Girls experience puberty earlier than do boys. – The childs body proportions are becoming more similar to an adults Fine motor skills – The child can control his/her small muscles well and has improved writing and drawing skills. – The child is starting to join letters together in handwriting. – The child is usually writing with joined-up letters. | Communication development – The child use and understand complex sentences. – The child enjoys making up stories and telling jokes. – The child can write fairly lengthy essays. – The child writes stories that show imagination are increasingly legible and grammatically correct. Intellectual development – The child is learning to plan ahead and evaluate what they do. – The child can deal with abstract ideas. – The child enjoys sewing and woodwork. – The child can concentrate on tasks for increasing period. – The child may be curious about drugs, alcohol and tobacco. – The child may develop special talents. | – The child may become discouraged easily. – The child takes pride in their competence. – The child can be argumentative and bossy, but can equally be generous and responsive. – The child tends to be particularly sensitive to criticism. – The child prefers to spend leisure time with friends and continues to participate in small groups of the same sex. – The child wants to talk, dress and act just like friends do. |
Age | Physical Development | Communication & Intellectual Development | Social, Emotional & Behavioural Development |
12-19 years | Growth; – The head, feet and hands grow to adult size first, then – The arms and legs grow in length and strength, and finally – The trunk grows to full adult size and shape. The average boy grows fastest between 14-15, girls grows fastest between 12-13. Girls finish their growth spurt at 18, boys finish growing aged 20. Secondary sex characteristics develop; – The growth of pubic hair, sweat, oil glands and hair grows in the armpits and on the legs in both sexes, facial hair, muscle, chest hair and deepened voice for males. Breasts and widened hips for females. Primary sex characteristics develop; – Hormonal changes cause a boys penis and testicles to grow and the body to produce sperm. Girls start to menstruate or have their monthly period. Both these events signal sexual maturity ??“ the ability to reproduce. | Communication development Young people become independent and spend much of their day outside the home. – The young person has a fast, legible style of handwriting. – The young person communicates in an adult manner. – The young person understands abstract language, such as idioms. – The young person is able to process texts and abstract meaning. Intellectual development Young people experience a major shift in thinking from concrete to abstract- and adult way of thinking (formal operational stage). – Thinking about possibilities that are not directly observable. – Thinking ahead ??“ young people start to plan ahead, often in a systematic way. – Thinking about their own thought processes??“ being able to explain what strategies you use when trying to remember things. – Thinking beyond conventional limits- thinking about issues that generally preoccupy human beings in adulthood, such as morality, religion and politics. They approach a problem in a systematic fashion and also use their imagination when solving problems. | – The young person may become self-conscious or worried about physical changes. – The young person develops a sexual identity; self-labelling as gay or lesbian tends to occur around the age of 15 for boys and 15and a half for girls. – The young person often feels misunderstood. – The young person can experience wide emotional swings. – The young person wants to become accepted and liked. – The young person tends to identify more with friends and begin to separate from parents; they are less dependent on family for affection and emotional support. |