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Global Warming
Outline
I. Introduction
Thesis: Global warming has various causes that have been attributed to the adverse effects of global warming which to alleviate them needs nations coming up with workable solutions.
Main Body
II. Causes of Global warming
A. Include: carbon dioxide gas emission from burning of fossil fuels, burning of vegetation, greenhouse effects, and increased temperature effects.
B. Burning of fossil fuels and vegetation are main causes of global warming as a result of emission of CO2 and other harmful gas in the atmosphere which is creating the greenhouse effect.
C. The greenhouse effect is another primary cause of global warming being witnessed in the world today. The carbon dioxide gas and other harmful gases are being released in the atmosphere at alarming rate creating a funnel atmosphere.
III. Effects of global warming
A. The effects of global warming are diverse and far-reaching in the world today and includes rising temperatures.
? Polar Regions rising temperatures due to global warming have cause immense melting of ice leading to rising sea levels. Example, Greenland icecaps melted at a higher rate of fifty-three cubic miles in 1996 an increase from twenty-two cubic miles in 1995.
B. Global warming is to blame for the adverse weather catastrophes that are taking place in the world over the past decade.
? El Nino, Hurricane Katrina, other floods causing havoc, and droughts are manifestations of global warming around the world. Storms and floods are the major catastrophes that are being witnessed today as result of high temperatures causing high rate of evaporation and rising sea levels.
IV. Recommended solutions
A. It is time that mankind goes back to the drawing board and come up with solutions to the global warming lest he becomes extinct without doubt.
B. Politicians and other policy makers have the key to solving the crisis created by global warming and reacting to the causes to control the adverse effects.
? The world needs strict measures on logging and burning of vegetation for urbanization.
? Invention of automobiles and machines that use electricity and solar energy instead of being driven by fuel power like oil and coal will help reduce emission of gases.
? Adoption of green economy is another solution that has been recommended to reduce the causes of global warming.
V. Conclusion.
Global warming has causes attributed by man??™s activities, the effects far-reaching with disastrous influences on man and other species in general. Remedial measures should be taken to reduce the causes of the global warming.

Introduction
The climate of the world over the recent years has experienced radical changes where the average temperatures in the globe have seen a significant rise. The situation of global warming has not unprecedented because over the past there have been changing climatic patterns involved in freezing temperatures, rising temperatures, and rising sea level. Thus, global warming has been defined as the gradual temperature rise on the surface of the earth leading to creation of the greenhouse effect on the globe. But the most noticeable is the temperatures near the earth??™s surface and the large masses of water have rapidly increased to alarming rates. In the past, the earth had the ice-age experience followed by the rather massive ice melt down. Yet all these changes were gradual with the effects on the world being minimal, but the changes the earth is experiencing currently are swifter and have without doubts have changed the ecosystem a great deal leading to extinction of species (Maslin 23). Global warming has various causes that have been attributed to the adverse effects of global warming which to alleviate them needs nations coming up with workable solutions.
The significant differences between the present global warming and the past on are that; whereas in the past years the causes were natural, the present is caused by man??™s activities. Smith (1) points out that the scientists and other scholars have attributed the cause and effect of global warming to emission of carbon dioxide gas and other greenhouse gases that have significantly continued to erode the ozone layer in the atmosphere causing the alarming rate in global warming. The causes of human activities in global warming is mostly the pollution whose global effects has been the rising temperatures, melting ice, rising sea levels and ocean temperatures leading to extinction of species. Scientists, politicians, and other scholars have become concerned with the global warming where drastic and remedial solutions need to be implemented lest humans and other species face rapid extinction in near future.
Causes of Global Warming
The present human activities such as carbon dioxide gas emission from burning of fossil fuels, burning of vegetation, greenhouse effects, and increased temperature effects have been highlighted as the global warming causes. Global warming is no longer a myth analyzing the situation right from the past gradual natural changes. On top of the natural causes of climatic changes in the world, man??™s activities have significantly increased the rate of global warming. With the human activities increasing as a result of population growth and search for more comfort leading to clearing of vegetation to meet man??™s needs such as urbanization, global warming will continue to be a threat in future (Spencer 46).
Burning of fossil fuels has been a main cause of global warming as a result of emission of CO2 and other harmful gas in the atmosphere which is creating the greenhouse effect. In views expressed by Time for Change (1), Automobiles and factories generate immense pollution as a result of burning fossil fuels leading to emission of large amount of carbon dioxide CO2 which has continued being emitted to the atmosphere. The increase in CO2 is affecting climatic patterns around the world. Other factors remaining constant have ensured the carbon dioxide and other harmful gases are trapped in the atmosphere. This has in turn influenced the sunlight to be trapped by the pollution thus being radiated back on the earth??™s surface after striking the surface of the earth. This reflection of the sun??™s rays has caused excess heat on the surface of the earth where scientists have attributed it to the drastic increase of the temperatures in the atmosphere and on surface of earth and water masses.
Logging and burning of vegetation cover is another factor that causes global warming. Not only does this man??™s activity increase emission of CO2 in the atmosphere but also increasing of the temperatures. Logging of vegetation is done to pave way for urbanization and for other man??™s comfort leading to clearing of large chunks of vegetation cover for the insatiable desire of man. The world is therefore experiencing faster rate of vegetation depletion today than before which has become something of major concern. It is common knowledge that vegetation is connected with the balance of atmospheric air. Vegetation balances the atmospheric air by absorbing the carbon dioxide CO2 and this reduces the amount of harmful gases causing the rising temperatures in the atmosphere. With clearing of the forest cover for urbanization and other uses, global warming will continue to haunt the world leading to drastic changes will further affect the world (Environmental Issues 2). This is because the equilibrium is not maintained then global warming will continue given that man has affected the symbiotic relationship in the natural ecosystem.
The greenhouse effect is another primary cause of global warming being witnessed in the world today. The carbon dioxide gas and other harmful gases are being released in the atmosphere at alarming rate. Environmental scientists have pointed out that the rising temperatures are as a result of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other gases being trapped on the earth??™s atmosphere. Smith (2) argues, ???The greenhouse effect was discovered by Joseph Fourier in 1824, first reliably experimented on by John Tyndall in 1858, and first reported quantitatively by Svante Arrhenius in 1896.??? The greenhouse effect in the atmosphere has thus wrecked serious damages on all living organisms. When the ecosystem is destroyed, then living organisms cannot survive which explains the extinction of various species on earth. The blame is all on global warming with greenhouse effect contributing to the extinction of species.
Effects of Global Warming
The effects of global warming are diverse and far-reaching in the world today and includes; rising temperatures, melting ice, rising sea level as a result of melting ice, and disastrous weather catastrophes. The rising temperatures have been attributed to the emission of gases in the atmosphere. Reflection of sun rays on the earth??™s surface allows the surface to cool. However, with continued emission of gaseous substances in the atmosphere is causing the heat from the sun to be trapped in the atmosphere leading to rising temperatures through reflection back on earth. According to Kennedy (10), ???Because human-produces aerosols are smaller and more numerous than natural aerosols, they increase the amount and brightness of clouds.??? The brightness in the clouds which is as a result of pollution causes the entrapment of heat back on earth. These temperatures are causing massive changes in climatic patterns thus affecting animals, plants, and man in particular. Kennedy (8) points out that:
The local-to-global focus of the study ranges from how climate changes are affecting individual animals and plants, such as in the timing of migration, breeding, or plant flowering; to local populations of the same species; to communities of species and their interactions within a single habitat; to major redistributions of assemblages of species within entire ecosystems.
The rising temperatures are to blame for the extinction of species on earth because they adversely destroy the ecosystems where species are comfortable and naturally breed. The rising of temperatures has also affected the sea and ocean temperatures. Scientific reports indicate that species of fish are becoming extinct because they cannot breed given the rising temperatures. The plants that support the water animals in oceans are also reported to be dying at alarming rate because of higher water temperatures. Coral reefs cannot survive in high temperatures are dying. In Polar Regions rising temperatures due to global warming have cause immense melting of ice leading to rising sea levels. For example, Greenland icecaps melted at a higher rate of fifty-three cubic miles in 1996 an increase from twenty-two cubic miles in 1995 (Michaels 67).
Global warming is to blame for the adverse weather catastrophes that are taking place in the world over the past decade. El Nino, Hurricane Katrina, other floods causing havoc, and droughts are manifestations of global warming around the world. Storms and floods are the major catastrophes that are being witnessed today as result of high temperatures causing high rate of evaporation and rising sea levels. Mountains that in 1980s were snow-capped are now bare. All these are the effects of global warming being felt around the world. An example of effects global warming is such factors of climate like the El Nino. ???The warm pooling of Pacific waters that periodically drives worldwide climate patterns and has been occurring more frequently in global warming years- further inhibit precipitation in dry areas of Africa and East Asia??? (Time for Change 1). Another example of global warming is the frequent occurrence of droughts. Studies indicate that areas around the world that are recently suffering from drought and its effects have doubled since 1970s (Environmental Issues 1). Temperature change has made rainfall seasons unreliable and adverse dry spells have increased significantly. This is why in Asia and in Africa, there are people and animals dying as a result of droughts and famines.
Recommended solutions
The people who have for long doubted global warming have so far seen its adverse effects around the world. The world and mankind are threatened indeed. Michaels (104) argues that many have written about a planet in peril which they have highlighted how threatened mankind and other species are. Man has come to grasps with the causes and the effects of global warming and therefore solutions to it lay within his behaviors to curb the menace. It is time that mankind goes back to the drawing board and come up with solutions to the global warming lest he becomes extinct without doubt. For a start global warming is being accelerated by the fast depletion of earth??™s vegetation cover. Temperatures are rapidly rising because there is increased burning of fossil fuel releasing harmful gases into the atmosphere creating the greenhouse effect. Politicians and other policy makers have the key to solving the crisis created by global warming and reacting to the causes to control the adverse effects.
Urbanization and industrialization have caused adverse causes especially in clearing the vegetation cover to build houses as well as the emission of harmful gases to the atmosphere. The world needs strict measures on logging and burning of vegetation. If we are to ensure that the CO2 in the atmosphere is balanced vegetation is needed for the absorption of CO2. Planting of trees to increase the vegetation cover in the world should be imperative so that the ecosystem is preserved. Nations are being advised to ensure the vegetation cover is more than ten percent so that they can preserve the environment and control global warming (Environmental Issues 2).
Industrialization is another aspect that has significantly contributed to global warming. Many machines and automobiles are running on fossil fuels which have resulted to emission of large amounts of harmful gases into the atmosphere. Invention of automobiles and machines that use electricity and solar energy instead of being driven by fuel power like oil and coal will help reduce emission of gases. According to Maslin (86), states have over the world met for various climate conferences where stakeholders from and signed the Kyoto Treaty. The treaty offers workable solutions to the world emission of gases into the atmosphere. The nations who have signed this treaty have agreed to abide by the declaration to reduce the gas emission in atmosphere and this is likely to reduce the greenhouse effect causing global warming by far. It is therefore advisable that nations that have not signed the Kyoto Treaty to be forced to do so even if it is through economic and international relations sanctions.
Adoption of green economy is another solution that has been recommended to reduce the causes of global warming. Green economy refers to the policies adopted by nations which ensure the environment is preserved at all costs. The use of green energy policies underlies in the using power means that do not encourage emission of gases in the atmosphere. Example of green renewable energy includes wind and solar power. Conservation of electricity through reduction is wastage would significantly help save energy. Use of recyclable products is another solution is important because they less pollute the environment. Recyclable materials ensure the end products can be recycled where fewer materials and energy is used after all. Take responsibility as a duty for all will ensure people preserve the environment and lessen the causes of global warming (Kennedy 14).
Conclusion
Global warming is a reality that is facing mankind and the planet as whole. It causes are not new to man and man himself through his daily endeavors to find comfort and sophisticated lifestyles has contributed to global warming. The effects have been far-reaching causing disastrous influences on man and other species in general. This calls for swift remedial measures to curb the causes of the global warming. Analyzing the causes by all policymakers is imperative so that solutions can be drawn whose implementation should be supported by all lest the planet continues to remain in peril. Minimizing the emission of CO2 and other harmful gases will considerably reduce greenhouse effect and therefore lower the rate of rising temperatures. Abiding by the ways and means of conserving the environment through renewable energy, planting more vegetation cover and other eco-friendly methods will without doubt have impact on the causes of global warming.

Works Cited
Environmental Issues. Environmental Issues: global warming & the greenhouse effect. 2010. Web. February 5, 2011.
Kennedy, Barbara K. ???Extensive Research Survey Confirms Life on Earth Now Being Affected by Global Warming.??? Science Journal. 20.1 (2002). 7-16.
Maslin, Mark. Global Warming. Stillwater, MN: Voyageur Press, 2007. Print.
Michaels, Patrick J. Meltdown the predictable distortion of global warming by scientists, politicians, and the media. Washington, DC: Cato Institute, 2005. Print.
Smith, Michael. Global warming and its effects on society. 2010. Web. February 5, 2011.
Spencer, Roy. ???How serious is the global warming threat??? Society. 44.5 (2007): 45-50
Time for Change. Cause and effect for global warming. 2007. Web. February 5, 2011.