Global Warming

The issue of global warming is a hot topic at present, with massive debate as to what is happening, why it happening and what we should be doing about it. Global warming is a term used to describe the increase in temperatures across the world, which in turn leads to climate change. The terms ???global warming??™ and ???climate change??™ are often used as if they mean the same thing but they are quite different; global warming is the measurable increase in temperature, whereas climate change refers to ???any change in the state of the climate that can be identified by changes in the average and/or the variability of its properties (e.g., temperature, precipitation), and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer??™ (Nodvin, 2010)
Evidence shows that global temperatures have been rising steadily over the last few decades (Nodvin, 2010), and that this has had an effect on the natural climate and topology of our world. Global warming is a result of the greenhouse effect. Our earth is naturally surrounded by a layer of insulating greenhouse gases which help to retain energy within the earths??™ atmosphere. Increase in the levels of greenhouse gases – such as carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapour and methane – results in an increase of the heat trapped, boosting the global temperature. Higher temperatures lead to shifts in climatic patterns across the world; the weather becomes more erratic, rainfall increases and changes in distribution and sea-levels rise. Human activity is seen as the biggest factor in this climate change. Global warming is accepted as fact by the large majority of climactic scientists (The Royal Society 2004), yet there is a small group of dissidents who debate its cause, or even its very existence. These sceptics suggest that global warming is part of a natural cycle of the Earth, or that the effects of global warming do not result in climate change.

The increase in CO2 production is one of the most significant causes of the increase in greenhouse gases. Carbon compounds are found in every living thing on Earth; human, animal or plant (CarbonInfo, 2010). Without human interference, the amount of carbon in the atmosphere is regulated naturally. Humans, animals and the decay of biomass, or plant life, all produce carbon, but the Earth is equipped with natural ???carbon sinks??™, or consumers of carbon. These include rainforests, oceans and rocks, which use carbon as part of their natural processes. However, human activity has resulted in a massive increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, through the burning of fossil fuels and the clearing and burning of rainforests, resulting in a much higher level of CO2 than the earth is naturally able to cope with .Carbon dioxide levels are now higher than they have ever been in the last million years (Shukman, 2006), mainly due to human industrialisation.
Changing weather patterns are often cited as further proof of climate change. According to the National Academies (2008), average temperatures have risen twice as fast in the last decade as in the previous decade, eleven of the last twelve years are the warmest on record and the years from 2000??“2100 are predicted to be the hottest in the last 10,000 years. It??™s not just about the temperature; the heat causes oceans to expand, leading to rising sea levels and increased rainfall. Furthermore, it is not simply the case that everywhere will get hotter at the same rate; climactic patterns are expected to radically shift, resulting in a knock-on effect to agriculture and natural migratory patterns, and threats to human and animal habitats (Huntley, B., 1991). Evidence of extreme weather is easy to find; in the past year alone there has been massive flooding in parts of Asia, extreme heat waves in Moscow, Russia and the calving of the biggest chunk of ice from the Greenland ice sheet since monitoring began 50 years ago (World Meteorological Organization, 2010).
The effects of climate change are already visible in our world. Research from National Geographic (2010) shows that glaciers and ice sheets are melting, coastlines are receding and animals??™ migratory patterns are changing. Further suggestions are made as to the future ??“ less fresh water is predicted to be available, storms and drought will increase, and whole inhabited islands will disappear as sea levels rise. A report released in 2004 by the Parliamentary Office for Science and Technology (POST) outlines a number of health impacts of climate change on the UK; it is predicted that extremes of temperature could lead to more heat-related deaths, increased UV radiation levels could lead to more skin cancer and cataracts in human individuals and the incidence of both insect- and water-borne diseases may increase.
Despite the overwhelming evidence, there are some small communities who deny the existence of global warming. More commonly, there are also groups who concede global warming, but deny that global warming is effecting climate change. Furthermore, there are groups who allow that both global warming and climate change are indeed real phenomena, but reject the idea that human activity is to blame.

Nodvin, S., 2010. Global Warming, Encyclopedia of Earth, [online] Available at: Accessed 11/11/2010
The Royal Society, 2004. The costs of Kyoto for the US economy. The Energy Journal, volume 25,
pages 53-71.
Carbon-Info, 2010. Global Warming ??“ The Science Explained, Carbon-Info, [online] Available at: Accessed 11/11/2010
Shukman, D., 2006. Sharp rise in CO2 levels recorded, BBC News Science/Nature, [online] Available at: < http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4803460.stm> Accessed 11/11/2010
National Academies, 2008. Understanding and responding to climate change, National Academiesof Sciences, Engineering and Medicine, [online] Available at: < http://dels.nas.edu/resources/static-assets/materials-based-on-reports/booklets/climate_change_2008_final.pdf > Accessed 11/11/2010

Child Care

Overview | This standard identifies the requirements when supporting the care, learning and development of children through the maintenance of environments. This includes preparing and maintaining a physical safe environment which is stimulating and build??™s the child??™s confidence, as well as supporting routines for children. |

Performance criteriaYou must be able to:You must be able to:You must be able to:You must be able to: | Prepare a safe physical environment P1 use physical space effectively when providing activities for children P2 set out equipment and materials so that activities are child centred and can be carried out safely P3 make sure that access to, and exits from, the environment are not obstructed P4 follow risk assessments and health and safety procedures while in the work setting P5 follow health and safety procedures in accordance with legal and work setting requirements P6 report any health and safety issues in accordance with legal and work setting requirements P7 encourage the active participation of children when making decisions about their environment P8 check that environmental factors within the work setting are appropriate for the child??™s preferences and needs P9 check that the environment is accessible for all who use itPrepare a stimulating environment P10 support the active participation of children and key people in the preparation and maintenance of a stimulating environment P11 make sure that the environment is appropriate for the needs and abilities of the child P12 use sensory displays which provide experiences for children to investigate and explore P13 use sensory displays to promote positive images of people in accordance with the values and principles of the sector P14 use a range of sensory experiences to provide a stimulating and exciting environment which promotes open enquiry P15 take into account the child??™s needs, interests and preferences when making changes to the environment Maintain an environment that builds childrens confidence and resilience P16 provide an environment that acknowledges the achievements of each child P17 provide active support to children to participate in activities P18 help children and key people to recognise their achievements P19 explain any changes to the childs environment clearly and honestly P20 provide reassurance, explanations and comfort for any unforeseen changes P21 help children to develop a sense of worth in relation to themselves and others around them P22 help children to make progress and achievements at a level appropriate to their age, needs and abilities P23 provide an environment that encourages children to socialise with adults and other usersSupport routines for children P24 support the active participation of key people in settling the child into the work setting taking account of preferences and needs P25 help children new to the setting to settle in, according to work setting procedures P26 help implement consistent routines for children that provide a balance of levels of activity whilst using the environment effectively P27 support childrens personal care preferences and needs according to procedures P28 provide food and drinks to children in keeping with procedures in the setting, making sure drinking water is available |

Knowledge and understandingYou need to know and understand:You need to know and understand:You need to know and understand:You need to know and understand:You need to know and understand:You need to know and understand:You need to know and understand:You need to know and understand:You need to know and understand: | Rights K1 work setting requirements on equality, diversity, discrimination and rights K2 your role supporting rights, choices, wellbeing and active participation K3 your duty to report anything you notice people do, or anything they fail to do, that could obstruct children??™s rights K4 the actions to take if you have concerns about discrimination K5 the rights that key people and children have to make complaints and be supported to do soHow you carry out your work K6 codes of practice, standards, frameworks and guidance relevant to your work and the content of this standard K7 the main items of legislation that relate to the content of this standard within your work role K8 how your own background, experiences and beliefs may affect the way you work K9 your own roles and responsibilities with their limits and boundaries K10 who you must report to at work K11 the roles and responsibilities of other people with whom you work K12 how to find out about procedures and agreed ways of working in your work setting K13 how to make sure you follow procedures and agreed ways of working K14 the meaning of child centred working and the importance of knowing and respecting all children and young people as individuals K15 the prime importance of the interests and well-being of children and young people K16 children??™s??™ cultural and language context K17 how to work in ways that build trust with key people and children K18 how to work in ways that support the participation of children K19 how to work in ways that respect children??™s dignity, personal beliefs and preferences K20 how to work in partnership with people K21 what you should do when there are conflicts and dilemmas in your work K22 how and when you should seek support in situations beyond your experience and expertiseTheory for practice K23 the factors that may affect the health, wellbeing and development of children K24 how these affect children in different ways K25 factors that promote the health, wellbeing and development of children K26 the main stages of child development and learningCommunication K27 the importance of effective communication in the work setting K28 factors that can have a positive or negative effect on communication and language skills and their development in children and young people K29 ways to support children and young people to express their needs, views and preferencesPersonal and professional development K30 why it is important to reflect on how you do your work K31 how to use your reflections to improve the way you workHealth and Safety K32 your work setting policies and practices for health, safety and security practices that help to prevent and control infection Safeguarding K33 the duty that everyone has to raise concerns about possible harm or abuse, poor or discriminatory practices K34 signs and symptoms of harm or abuse of children K35 how and when to report any concerns about abuse, poor or discriminatory practice, resources or operational difficulties K36 what to do if you have reported concerns but no action is taken to address themHandling information K37 legal requirements, policies and procedures for the security and confidentiality of information K38 work setting requirements for recording information and producing reports including the use of electronic communication K39 what confidentiality means K40 how to maintain confidentiality in your work K41 when and how to pass on information Specific to this NOS K42 the transitions that children and young people may go through K43 the ways to support childrens development thorough the provision of sensory experiences K44 the effects of changes, such as new children settling in, and ways to help children manage them K45 the way childrens needs change as they develop and how to make the environment appropriate to the ages and stages of development of the children K46 how to display objects in a stimulating and interesting way for children K47 how to maintain the appropriate environmental factors for the comfort, safety and development of the child K48 how the values and principles of the sector can be reflected in the environment K49 the importance of consistent routines for childrens development K50 the requirement and importance of physical play K51 how to help children physical play opportunities K52 the importance of quiet periods for children to rest without being over stimulated by constant activity K53 basic information about safe food handling K54 basic nutritional needs of children and the principles of healthy eating according to government guidance as well as individual preferences and needs K55 the importance of regular physical activity and exercise to physical and mental health K56 different food groups and the importance of supporting childrens food preferences, nutritional requirements and cultural preferences and needs K57 different types of food allergies and the importance of following setting procedures to ensure children are protected K58 the care of childrens skin and hair, toiletries used, sun safety K59 how childrens teeth develop, the effects of poor diet, everyday care of teeth K60 the physical care preferences and needs of the child |

Additional Information
Scope/range related to performance criteria | The details in this field are explanatory statements of scope and/or examples of possible contexts in which the NOS may apply; they are not to be regarded as range statements required for achievement of the NOS.Note: Where a child or young person finds it difficult or impossible to express their own preferences and make decisions about their life, achievement of this standard may require the involvement of advocates to represent the views and best interests of the child or young person. Where there are language differences within the work setting, achievement of this standard may require the involvement of interpreters or translation services.Accessible All children and young people can use the environment and children are not prevented from benefiting because of a disability or particular need Active participation is a way of working that regards children and young people as active partners in their own care or support rather than passive recipients. Active participation recognises each child and young person??™s right to participate in the activities and relationships of everyday life as independently as possible Child/young person centred approaches are those that fully recognise the uniqueness of the child or young person and establish this as the basis for planning and delivery of care and supportEnvironmental factors are the external conditions or surroundings which may influence development or behaviour such as room temperature, ventilation, weather conditions Equipment and materials are physical objects which furnish the environment Key people are those who are important to a child or young person and who can make a difference to his or her well-being. Key people may include family, friends, carers and others with whom the child or young person has a supportive relationship.Risk assessments are documents that identify actual and potential risks andspecify actions to address theseThe work setting may be in someones home, within an organisations premises, in the premises of another organisation, out in the community |

Scope/range relating to knowledge and understanding | The details in this field are explanatory statements of scope and/or examples of possible contexts in which the NOS may apply; they are not to be regarded as range statements required for achievement of the NOS. All knowledge statements must be applied in the context of this standard.Factors that may affect the health, wellbeing and development may include adverse circumstances or trauma before or during birth; autistic spectrum conditions; discrimination; domestic violence; family circumstances; foetal alcohol syndrome; harm or abuse; injury; learning disability; medical conditions (chronic or acute); mental health; physical disability; physical ill health; poverty; profound or complex needs; sensory needs; social deprivation; substance misuse Transitions may include starting nursery for the first time, moving from nursery to school, moving home, the birth of a sibling, other changes affecting the child or young person |

Values | Adherence to codes of practice or conduct where applicable to your role and the principles and values that underpin your work setting, including the rights of children, young people and adults. These include the rights:To be treated as an individualTo be treated equally and not be discriminated againstTo be respectedTo have privacyTo be treated in a dignified wayTo be protected from danger and harmTo be supported and cared for in a way that meets their needs, takes account of their choices and also protects themTo communicate using their preferred methods of communication and languageTo access information about themselves |

Developed by | Skills for Care & Development |
Version number | 1 |
Date approved | March 2012 |
Indicative review date | December 2014 |
Validity | Current |
Status | Original |
Originating organisation | Skills for Care & Development |
Original URN | CCLD 205 |
Relevant occupations | Childcare and Related Personal Services; Child Development and Well Being; Direct learning support; Education and training; Education Workers; Health, Public Services and Care; Public Service and Other Associate Professionals; Teachers; Working with Young Children |
Suite | Children??™s Care Learning and Development |
Key words | preparation, environments, development, opportunities |

Global Warming

Global warming is such a serious issue, but every day we are making it worse by driving gas guzzling cars, and polluting the air with carbons, and other gases. The environment needs to start helping by recycling, car pooling, and finding new renewable resources to survive on that are not harmful to the environment. In this research paper the author will explain how global warming affects the earth and the environment. Global Environment is dangerous because it can spread more diseases to around earth. Also the author will explain why global warming will cause the weather to worsen over time. He will also go over all of the economic consequences that we will face due to global warming. Due to global warming ice caps in the Arctic are melting and causing sea levels to rise. My personal experience was very good there was a lot of helpful information on the internet about global warming.
Since global warming is such a serious issue there have been many discussions on the effects of global warming. One discussion has been brought up about why global warming brings more diseases. During the talk of this topic the author wondered what diseases global warming will bring. The author found many diseases that will be spread including Lyme disease that is normally spread through ticks. Also the plague has a chance of being spread by rodents and their fleas while they are moving due to climate change. There has also been talk about what countries will bring the most diseases. Developing and third world countries will have more diseases spread around their countries. Developing countries will experience more diseases until they can get air conditioning and screen windows. Also Developing countries that do not have all of the modern medicines will run into more deaths from diseases caused from global warming. Because of global warming many very deadly diseases will spread throughout various countries. Avian influenza viruses occur naturally in wild birds, changes in climate such as severe winter storms and droughts can disrupt normal movements of wild birds and can bring both wild and domestic bird populations into greater contact at remaining water sources. Ebola fever virus easily kills humans, gorillas, and chimpanzees, and there is currently no known cure. Scientists continue to work on finding the source of the disease and to develop vaccines for protection. There is significant evidence that outbreaks of this disease are related to unusual variations in rainfall/dry season patterns. As climate change disrupts and exaggerates seasonal patterns, we may expect to see outbreaks of these deadly diseases occurring in new locations and with more frequency.

https://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/
The earths climate has always been changing, although not at an abrupt rate. There had been periods of warming and cooling in the earths 4.65 billion-year history. Storms will also occur with more frequency and intensity. The next big question that the author was wondering is why wills global warming to worsen The weather will get worse because of increasing weather and more tropical storms. With warmer weather, some hurricanes will be more severe and winds are expected to blow stronger. Why does global warming increase storms For every 1.8-degree increase in average ocean surface temperature, data observed a 45-percent increase in the frequency of the very high clouds. With more clouds and rising air and water temperatures it creates more intense winds. Also Tropical clouds are linked with severe storms, torrential rain and hail. There is also a lot of talk about why hurricanes will become worse due to global warming. Hurricanes and typhoons have become stronger and longer lasting over the past 30 years while temperatures have been rising. Also the intensity of hurricanes and typhoons should increase by 5 percent for every 1.8?F rise in sea surface temperature. With changes in climate brought about by global warming, health concerns and risks may also increase. The author also has been wondering what kind of weather changes will occur due to global warming The water vapor content of the atmosphere will increase in a warmer world. It is also possible that wind patterns may shift. Extremely cold periods may be experienced as well. Warmer weather will cause hurricanes to be more frequent and more severe and winds are expected to blow stronger. Human activities such as deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions from a wide range of industrial and agricultural processes are contributing to those temperature changes at a greater rate today than in the past. With these rising temperatures the economy needs to do something to reduce green house gases and help with global warming.
Global warming has become one of the most pressing issues of modern society. In particular the economic effects of global warming are very important. Which comes to another of the author??™s questions, what economic consequences will we face due to global warming There will be many economic consequences like rising food prices, rising sea level, storm damages, loss of wildlife, and migration. Another discussion is what big companies will be affected by global warming Prices of Oil will go up some big oil companies will make more money. Energy companies will make more money because energy bills will be more expensive in people??™s houses. Global warming is causing desertification of agricultural land. This is compounded by a shortage of water. This will cause problems in supplying food leading to rising prices. This will particularly affect countries which are net importers of food. This could harm the agriculture around the world. Increasingly warmer temperatures led to lower crop yields. Those lower crop yields amounted to a net economic loss of $5 billion a year. Global warming is causing sea levels to rise. This will cause structural damage and loss of land. A serious issue today is How expensive will storm and weather damages be Global warming increases hurricanes and storms and hurricane Katrina caused $80 billion worth of damages alone. Costs to clean up after storms and other natural disasters reached a record $180 billion in 2005. This has led to huge insurance payouts. In 2007, the floods in the UK could be due to global warming. This will lead to higher insurance premiums. Changing temperatures can cause havoc for wildlife. The economic cost may be hard to evaluate, but, if species go extinct it may prevent future medicines being invented. It is argued that higher temperatures may lead to increased food production in some countries. This conflicts with the issue of desertification. Some areas will have increased production, some areas lower production. Also lower heating bills for cold countries. But higher air conditioning costs for warm countries. The rise in Temperatures is only temporary. Some argue that world temperatures have always fluctuated and this rise in temperatures will only be temporary. With all this being said the government needs to step in and help out the economy. The money that the government would spend right now would help out in the long run because they could save the planet and save money overtime.
After the author??™s conclusion in this research, that Ice caps melting in the arctic are making sea levels rise. Rising sea levels cause warmer ocean waters in the future. The warming of ocean waters cause higher climates and more tropical storms. With higher climates there are many disadvantages and few advantages. Climate is changing is obvious, not only when considering one regional change taking place in the Arctic but when examining what is happening on a global scale. We need to find new ways to reduce greenhouse gases to help save our environment. . The environment needs to start helping by recycling, car pooling, and finding new renewable resources to survive on that are not harmful to the environment. By using renewable resources we can help by not producing as much pollution. Also by using biodegradable resources we cannot pollute our soil and ruin our wildlife and nature. The author enjoyed learning about global warming and its terrible effects. His personal experience makes him want to help our planet out and go green. Learning about pollution and all the ways that people cause global warming can make a person realize everything they can do about global warming.
When Ice caps are melting in the arctic it causes sea levels to rise and that brings damages to the land, and also the environment is losing more land every year. Global warming is a serious issue in our economy and if we don??™t do things to help out now it might be too late. Personal skills that the author has learned have taught him to recycle and car pool so there are not burn as many fossil fuels burned. Also reduce the ecological footprint. To reduce your ecological footprint you and help and not pollute the earth, and also reduce the amount of land that you use. While reducing the amount of land that is used you can share it with other people and use less land for more things that are needed to be done. Overall the author concludes that Melting ice caps cause weather to be worse, and if you do not help with the economy then global warming is just going to get worse.

Child Care

Outcome 1: know how to recognise signs of abuse

1.1 Define Physical abuse

Non-accidental trauma or physical injury caused by punching, beating, kicking, biting, burning or otherwise harming a child act of another party involving contact intended to cause feelings of physical pain, injury, or other physical suffering or bodily harm. There are many forms of physical abuse which, have related signs and symptoms. For instance the signs for punching, kicking, strangling, may be bruising, breaks to bones, fractures, or death. Slapping may cause reddening to the skin or bruising. Pushing or tripping may cause someone to trip or fall. Sleep deprivation may cause someone to be continually tired. Exposure to extreme heat or cold may cause burns to the skin.

1.1 Define sexual abuse
Forcing a child or a young adult to engage in unwanted sexual activity by one person on another, as by the use of threats or coercion.
Sexual activity that is deemed improper or harmful, as between an adult and a minor or with a person of diminished mental capacity.

1.1 Define emotional/psychological abuse
a pattern of behaviour by parents or caregivers that can seriously interfere with a child??™s cognitive, emotional, psychological or social development a form of abuse characterized by a person subjecting or exposing another to behaviour that may result in psychological trauma, including anxiety, or depression. Forms of psychological abuse include threating to harm or abandon someone, bullying, the signs for which may be low self-esteem, reluctance of victim to be alone with abuser, and unable to trust people.

1.1 Define Financial abuse
Financial abuse is the illegal or unauthorized use of a person??™s property, money, by another person. Forms of financial abuse include theft, fraud, or misuse of property. The signs may be the unexplained disappearance of personal possessions

1.1 Define Institutional abuse
Being forced into a system where you are told to eat, drink, do activities at a certain times. The abuse can be sexual emotional and physical
The child in foster care or in a care home can??™t get out of the system and can be open to abuse of trust

1.1 Define self neglect
A Child / young person has low self-esteem and refuses to eat or take care of their personal hygiene maybe due to other abuse of divorce
1.1 Define Neglect by others
Refusing to clean and feed a child or buy them new clothing and do not offer any emotional stimulation

Global Warming.

Israel and Global Warming

On April 25th, 2005 Elizabeth Kolbert stated, ???People tend to focus on the here and now. The problem is that, once global warming is something that most people can feel in the course of their daily lives, it will be too late to prevent much larger, potentially catastrophic changes.??? This quote has been applied to Israel, a country that has fallen behind in protecting our dear earth. As a representative from Israel, I realize that our country has abused the planet and the consequences of global warming here are inevitable. In the past decade, Israel has been pulverized by flooded coastlines, intense droughts, increased competition for water and strong storms. I am aware of all the substandard events have taken place, but do realize that things are being done in order to save our country from these disasters and unfortunate global events. Israel is now aware of the misfortune that we, along with many others, have brought upon this Earth, a burden which cannot be removed unless actions are taken. Global warming is not only damaging the air around us, but the economy too. Ever since global warming has been perceived as an issue, there has been agricultural devastation which has created a huge economic downfall. There has been an increase in water process, and dried up farms which can no longer provide food to our people. Israel, being a beautiful country, has had tourism being a huge money maker. Unfortunately, beach erosion has led to a decrease in tourists and a 1.6 billion dollar lost. Here in Israel, we have dealt with the worst, and are more than prepared to lift this burden.
I shall start off with facts about how global warming and environmental tribulations have harmed our country personally. There has been an increase in average temperatures up to 1.8 degrees, a drop of 4 to 8 percent on annual precipitation, a 10% increase in evapo-transpiration, the rise in sea levels by 12-88 cm, increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and 1,000 deaths annually due to pollution in the metropolitan area. After devastating effects like these, why would Israel not take a stand against global warming We need to save our population and find a way to prosper after such tragic events have pummeled us. Israel has recently started a campaign called ???Take a minute, to save a generation???, which is aimed to educate the public about global warming and the effects that it has on our country as well as the global environment. In 1992, when global warming was first pronounced an issue, we signed in the United Framework Convention on Climate Change. In 1996 we ratified the treaty and took charge of the global warming tragedy. Since then, there has been a heavy shift away from coal and heavy fuels, to natural gas in power plants which will improve the deprived air pollution and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, our Prime Minister has embraced a plan to create the first solar power plant in the Negev Desert. Currently, we are learning how to utilize groundwater resources located beneath the desert. We are finding alternative ways to prove energy and water in a barren land where resources are scarce. In addition, a solar power facility has been created to shift away from the dependence on fossil fuels and coal for energy.
Adam Teva V??™Din claims ???Israel??™s environment is headed for disaster??? when really, our country is headed for improvement and environmental advances like no other. Israel is taking the issue of global warming as a high priority because our country depends on the Earth, and the resources which it provides. Without improving environmental hazards and taking global issues seriously, those in Israel and those around the world will cease to exist.

Child Care

10 Child and young person development
Assessment criteria
1.1a Describe the expected pattern of children and young peoples development from birth to 19 years, to include: a physical development
1.1b Describe the expected pattern of children and young peoples development from birth to 19 years, to include: b communication and intellectual development
1.1c Describe the expected pattern of children and young peoples development from birth to 19 years, to include: c social, emotional and behavioural development
1.2 Describe with examples how different aspects of development can affect one another
2.1a Describe with examples the kinds of influences that affect children and young people??™s development including: a background
2.1b Describe with examples the kinds of influences that affect children and young people??™s development including : b health
2.1c Describe with examples the kinds of influences that affect children and young people??™s development including: c environment .
2.2 Describe with examples the importance of recognising and responding to concerns about children and young people??™s development .
3.1 Identify the transitions experienced by most children and young people
3.2 Identify transitions that only some children and young people may experience eg. bereavement .
3.3 Describe with examples how transitions may affect children and young people??™s behaviour and development .

11 Safeguarding the welfare of children and young people
Assessment criteria
1.0 Identify the current legislation, guidelines, policies and procedures for safeguarding the welfare of children and young people including safety
1.1 Describe the roles of different agencies involved in safeguarding the welfare of children and young people .
2.1 Identify the signs and symptoms of common childhood illnesses.
2.2 Describe the actions to take when children or young people are ill or injured .
2.3 Identify circumstances when children and young people might require urgent medical attention .
2.4a Describe the actions to take in response to emergency situations including: a fires .
2.4b Describe the actions to take in response to emergency situations including: b security incidents .
2.4c Describe the actions to take in response to emergency situations including: missing children or young people .
3.1 Identify the characteristics of different types of child abuse .
3.2 Describe the risks and possible consequences for children and young people using the internet, mobile phones and other technologies .
3.3 Describe actions to take in response to evidence or concerns that a child or young person has been abused, harmed (including self harm) or bullied, or maybe at risk of harm, abuse or bullying .
3.4a Describe the actions to take in response to concerns that a colleague may be : a failing to comply with safeguarding procedures .
3.4b Describe the actions to take in response to concerns that a colleague may be : b harming, abusing or bullying a child or young person .
3.5 Describe the principles and boundaries of confidentiality and when to share information .

Global Warming

Global Warming is the increase of the earth??™s atmosphere causing climatic change. The subject is not new and in fact was first recognized in the early 1800??™s. However, the debate has changed. Originally the argument was whether global warming actually existed. There are some skeptics who will continue to refute that subject even though due to much evidence most would concur that the earth is indeed warming. Therefore in the last several decades the bigger controversy has not been ???if??? it exists, but ???why?????? Are the causes human effects or is natural science the lone culprit There is much information supporting both sides. My opinion and argument is that global warming originated by nature, but is accelerated today by man-made contributions. My belief is that we must take actions to help our planet sustain a healthy atmosphere for safe habitation. I can support my thesis using research and scientific data. Past and present politics will also be analyzed on both sides as global warming is one of the most complicated issues in front of our leaders worldwide.
Due to the massive subject matter and the thousands of sources, I will concentrate on the last two decades while using a broad historical time line only when necessary to preface a more in depth fact. Through the years scientists have studied the greenhouse effects, CO2 emissions, methane, orbital rotation and a host of other climatic changes. The issues are here to stay and we must be aware of the facts as consumers and citizens. The truth is that we are responsible and need to make the necessary changes in our world including daily living and supporting political leaders at the polls. ???Going Green??? has been called a political ploy used by candidates at election time. Through analysis of opposing sides I have learned much and chosen to support the scientific field.
For every fact supporting the effects of man in global warming, the opposition has a rebuttal. One of the more widespread arguments of the opposition includes the belief that human CO2 is a tiny percentage of total CO2 emissions. One may be persuaded to believe this because if you look at the units of measure for CO2 (gigatones ??“ GT) emissions, humans emit a much smaller amount. The scientific facts show, however, that the nature??™s CO2 emissions from the ocean and vegetation is balanced by natural absorptions. Rising CO2 levels caused by humans upsets this natural balance and the earth cannot compensate for that increasing amount. Therefore, even though humans emit less than the natural levels, it is highly significant because it is above and beyond what the oceans and land can absorb naturally. Global warming has and always will occur naturally. Why it has become such a concern in our lifetime is due to the fact that human activities and practices have contributed significantly to its occurrence and severity.
Another dispute is the question of, ???If it is human caused why didn??™t we have global warming during the ???Industrial Revolution??? In concept that seems to make sense, after all it was during that time that technology took its primary role in manufacturing, farming, mining, transport and the textile industry. The Industrial Revolution marks a major turning point in history influencing nearly every aspect of how we live. The simple explanation is that CO2 emissions were much smaller years ago and the earth??™s population was a fraction of what it is today. With more consumers there are more CO2 emissions.
An additional myth is that a significant amount of scientists do not believe in global warning caused by people. ???The truth is that 97% of climate experts believe that humans are causing global warming.??? Climate experts are not the only scientists who believe the same. Biologists, zoologists, wetland and environmental scientists hold this to be true as well. These experts are fair in their analysis weighing both sides and acknowledging causes from nature and humans. ???Changes in carbon storage due to natural processes, (e.g., fire and droughts) and human actions (e.g., wetland drainage, timber gravest, soil disturbance, and burning of fossil fuels) release carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, contributing to global warming??? (Tiner 94).
???Going Green??? has been called a political ploy used by candidates at election time. It is a very controversial subject and arguments are strong on both sides. The subject is found in political arenas around the globe. The most current political opinions and efforts are found in daily newspapers such as the New York Times. The scientific consensus appears to be secondary to the economic concerns. Some policy makers in the United States are reluctant to propose and enact changes because they feel the costs may outweigh any risks global warming poses. Many policy makers are concerned that changes in US policy in carbon production, use, and emissions may result in job loss, which would be detrimental to the economy.
My belief is that economics play a larger role in political policies than they should when it comes to the environment. One must weigh the arguments through research and analysis and then take action. A economist, Dr. Peter Tsigaris of Thompson Rivers University says that by taking steps to curb global warming makes sense form both an environmental and economic standpoint. He estimates that by addressing global warming by changing our dependency on fossil fuels and other behavior would cost an estimated one percent of global Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per year, while taking no action could cost five percent GPD each year. Therefore, extreme climate change could result in a cost of 20 percent GDP or greater, according to Science Daily. I say, ???Go ahead. Weigh the Difference. The final cost will be our world in which we exist.???

Child Care Level 3 Unit 22 2.1 & 2.2

Explain how children & young people??™s development
is influenced by a range of personal factors

There are many personal factors that can influence a child or young person??™s development. Their development could possibly be affected before birth or after birth.

1. Antenatal: this is known as the stage from conception to birth. During this time the life style of the mother affects every part of the child??™s development in the womb. If the mother smokes, takes drugs, becomes stressed or becomes sick this can result in a premature birth and health problems for the baby such as: low birth weight, undeveloped organs, problems with sight and hearing. This can cause a delay on the baby??™s development.

2. Prenatal: this is the time of birth. Babies born before 37 weeks are called premature babies. They may possibly need intensive care which will affect the development, e.g. lack of oxygen during birth can affect their development.

3. Health problems: if a child suffers from health issues such as asthma, it may make them unable to take part in activities which will affect the overall development. A child with learning difficulties, physical disabilities or sensory deficiencies (blindness & deafness) will make it unable for them to socialize and work with other children. This is a huge part in helping their development. They may also be withdrawn and made feel like they don??™t belong.

Explain how children and young people??™s development is influenced by a range of external factors

External factors have extensive effects on your child??™s development. Your child??™s home environment, the friends with whom they spend time with and the food that they eat are factors that influence his physical, social and cognitive development in positive and negative ways.
Poverty & Deprivation
* Poverty affects children and their families in various ways. Poverty in the UK is categorised as relative rather than absolute, meaning that children are not starving, but the effects of growing up in poverty are still very noticeable.

Personal Choices
* As children develop into young people, they are usually given more independence. This means that they are often in situations where they can make their own decisions, for example, choosing whether to smoke or not, drink, have sex or be a drug user. These types of choices can have an impact and effect on their development.

Family environment & background
* Children??™s development is influenced by their family environment. Parents in particular are extremely important in children??™s lives and this is why policies in early neglect babies, year settings are designed to work in partnership with them. Parents may also support their children as they go through school by being involved in homework or taking an interest in what the child does. This has a massive impact on children??™s development, especially in areas of cognitive, social and emotional development.

* However some parents are not able to cope. This can affect the way their children develop. Depression, drug taking and alcoholism are examples of conditions that might add to parents??™ lack of ability to complete their parenting role easily. Parents may neglect babies and younger children, older children may find themselves taking on a caring role within the family. It is not unknown for children aged as young as 5 years to dress and feed younger siblings.

Child Care 007

Unit 007

Outcome 1

Q1. Identify the current legislation, guidelines, policies and procedures for safeguarding the welfare of children and young people including e-safety

A1.
Children Act 1989
This Act identifies the responsibilities of parents and professionals who must work to ensure the safety of the child.

The Education Act 2002
The main current procedures for safeguarding children and young people is before a member of staff can start employment they should be CRB checked. Criminal Records Bureau check List 99 (Now known as Section 142 of the Education Act 2002) List 99 is maintained by the Department for Children, Schools & Families (DCSF) and contains the details of people who are considered unsuitable or banned from working with children in education. A List 99 check is done to ensure your applicant does not appear on the sex offenders register and confirms if they are barred from working with children.

Children Act 2004
This provides the legal framework for Every Child Matters. It includes the requirement for services to work more closely, forming an integrated service.
a ???common??™ assessment of children??™s needs, a shared database of information which is relevant to the safety and welfare of children, Earlier support for parents who are experiencing problems.

E-safety
E-safety is very important when working with children and families. In work palace we must not view provocative images or share inflammatory email to anyone, Must not share information about a child or family to third parties by email. Not to upload images on social network like facebook of a child or family that we are working with.

Outcome 1

Q2. Describe the roles of different agencies involved in safeguarding the welfare of children and young people
A2. Health Visitors: A Health Visitor can sometimes be the first person to spot abuse, especially physical. Health Visitors have a duty of care to refer such information to Social Services.
School Nurse: A School Nurse can sometimes be the first person to spot abuse, especially physical. School Nurse has a duty of care to refer such information to Social Services.
Social Services: Are there to offer support to both the child and the setting. Social services have the powers to investigate any suspected unacceptable behaviors from parents, children or the setting.
Child Protection Investigation Unit (CPIU): This unit is run by the police who have the powers to investigate, interview and arrest anyone suspected of abusing a child.
The Police: The Police have the powers to investigate, interview and arrest anyone suspected of abusing a child. Quite often they will ask the CPIU to investigate directly and also inform Social Services.
NSPCC: Information can be passed anonymously to the NSPCC. If taken seriously the NSPCC have a duty of care to refer such information to Social Services.
OFSTED: If there are questions about practices within the setting then OFSTED may be asked to investigate further.

Outcome 2

Q1. Identify the Signs and Symptoms of Common Childhood Illnesses.
Illness Signs and Symptoms are
Common cold ??“ sneezing, sore throat, runny nose, headache, irritability
Gastroenteritis ??“ vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration
Tonsillitis- very sore throat, difficulty in swallowing, fever, headache, aches and pains
Scarlet fever ??“ fever, loss of appetite, sore throat, pale around mouth, ???strawberry tongue???, bright pinpoint rash over face and body
Dysentery ??“ vomiting, diarrhea with blood and mucus, abdominal pain, fever, headache
Chickenpox ??“ fever, very itchy rash with blister-like appearance
Measles- high fever, runny nose and eyes, cough, white spots in mouth, blotchy rash on body and face
Mumps ??“ pain and swelling of jaw, painful swallowing, fever
Rubella (German measles) ??“ slight cold, sore throat, swollen glands behind ears, slight pink rash
Pertussis (whooping cough) ??“ snuffy cold, spasmodic cough with whoop sound, vomiting
Meningitis- fever, headache, irritability, drowsiness, confusion, dislike of light, very stiff neck, maybe small red spots beneath the skin that do not disappear when a glass is pressed against them

Outcome 2

Q2 describe the actions to take when children or young people are ill or injured

Global Warming

Erick Carlo
ILT 101 Sec. 3
Research Paper
November 9, 2010
Global Warming
Global Warming??™s effects may not have such an impact on previous generations, but for our and future generation; the climate changes will have a direct impact on New York as well as other states located on the coasts??™ of America. Being that New York City is such a popular city, it is not hard to see the extremely high energy usage, whether it be for generating heat, producing light, or even to complete our work. Without the capability of energy, the daily routines that are done throughout life would not occur. These uses of energy, although it is not noticed unless it is studied, cause harm to our environment.
Polar ice caps begin to melt and sea levels slowly rise and destroy low lying cities that are located along our country??™s coast. Over the last hundred years, the global temperatures have slowly increased. Since 1980, the global temperature has risen 0.2 degrees Celsius every decade. Scientists predict that if we continue to use the same amount of energy and harm our atmosphere by with the gases that cause the holes in the ozone layer, by the year 2030 the temperature will be rising as much as 0.5 degrees Celsius or more each decade. Overall, the global temperature could rise anywhere from 5 to 9 degrees over the next fifty years. ?  If the temperatures do rise, as researchers predict, numerous things can happen. The increase of temperatures that Global Warming is causing can alter the way crops grow near the equator due to the lack of rain and heat. With these increasing temperatures, the polar ice caps can possibly melt and this would cause the sea level to have an increase of 1 to 3 feet. This increase would destroy small islands, coastal cities and even shallow enough rivers throughout not only in the United States but throughout the entire world.
New York City must prepare for higher temperatures, more rain and an increased risk of coastal flooding in the approaching decades as a result of this global climate change. The potential effects of global warming on the city, said that average yearly temperatures in New York could increase by up to 3 degrees and the average sea levels can rise by 2 to 5 inches by the 2020s. By the 2080s, temperatures could increase by up to 7 ? degrees, and sea levels could possibly rise 12 to 23 inches by the end of the century. New York City government officials have mentioned that in order to prepare for the expected outcome from these climate changes, the city should plan to keep cooling centers for people without the luxury of having an air-conditioner open longer during heat waves. Government officials also provided the idea of moving critical equipment in city buildings above sea level due to the expected rise of seal levels throughout the century. The city is also asked to incorporate climate changes into the design of buildings because these newer projects will need to sustain such climate changes that we may go thru due to Global Warming. These increased temperatures during the summer could possibly lead to more blackouts in the summer because of drastic increase in electricity use on hot days. Not only for the summer but as well as winter time when heaters and boilers are used to product heat, these weather conditions may seem confusing due to different climate changes happening throughout the year. ???Planning for climate change today is less expensive than rebuilding an entire network after the catastrophe,??? Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg mayor said. ???We cannot wait until after our infrastructure has been compromised to begin to plan for the effects of climate change now.???