Global Observer

A team of investigators has been assigned to investigate an accident that has caused a deadly airplane incident. The event occurred in Buffalo, New York, due to a chain of errors. From the accident, a debate has arisen between pilots and aviation safety specialists. Colgan Air Inc. has begun to address fatigue faced by pilots during their duties. Pilots were careless and had ignored the safety rules. This rule breaking was identified as contributing factors from which the National Transportation Association (NTA) used to prove causes for the death of fifty passengers in the Colgan incident. In 2007, Colgan Air announced that they had reformed their safety and security procedures. Subsequently, the company is trying to develop its employee relations to improve the company??™s operations.
The author of the article said the pilots agree with the critics and experts, stating that the airline companies usually get what they want, especially in relevant cases similar to the Colgan air disaster. The company naturally requires their pilots to work maximum hours, which are more than they are capable of undertaking. At the same time, it frowns upon employees who complain about the lack of the safety procedures. During the investigators discussion, they condemned Colgan`s managers for their insistence on punishing the pilots for complaints of fatigue. Furthermore, they use strict rules in order to force the pilots to work harder than they are capable of.
After a few months, since the company adopted a strategy that states ???No questions??? and pilots should stick to their schedules, it became more severe towards the end of December. They wrote a memo to their pilots that said, ???Fatigue calls are now the majority.??? Management of Colgan air thought that this will affect their target to provide a service with compatible prices. Colgans air had mentioned that they will not accept all this request of time off.
The airline had been reviewing their policy about fatigue. They restored some parts of their policy which pilots believe are less restrictive. However, these rules are not clear and do not provide a time frame to when the new rules will be applied.
A Colgan spokesman said about the fatigue issues ???we are not looking to punish people??? (Pasztor & Carey, 2010). In addition, Joe Williams said we are trying to help understanding the reasons behind calling fatigue and scheduling adjustments or which can relive the issue.
Moreover, some pilots and safety experts said that the issue of fatigue still has not resolved or partially resolve because part of issue depends on management. Management even though not taking step further to setup their head point considering fatigue complaints. On the other hand, pilots have noticed other companies; have found more than one way to deal with the fatigue issues, without penalizing their staff.
Some airlines don??™t punish the pilot??™s who ask about a rest because of fatigue, but they arrange the pilot??™s schedule to be more comfortable to him. Therefore, the pilot will have time to get the rest and to take a flight.
Colgan has a fleet of 48 planes which serves 53 destinations. The accident of flight 3407 happened last year during bad weather. Next summer, Colgan will receive around 15 Bombardier Q400. It will set the safety standards in the new airplanes as requirements.
The company set new rules to accept the pilot, such as, at least 1000 previous flying hours of experience and 3250 hours for the captain. The requirement became more difficult after the accident. Later this month, the company will phase in twice-yearly proficiency checks for all co-pilots, something Colgan says no other U.S. airline is doing. Also, it will restructure the management. Nowadays, the company and its pilot have agreed to download information from flight-data recorders without punishing the pilots involved.
A spokesmen said, ???The management will be restructured, and the head-quarter will move from Manassas, VA to Memphis, Tenn. That changing is intended for a benefit of getting everyone together for better decision making and communications.??? (Pasztor & Carey, 2010)
A senior Colgan official said,??? We can concentrate on solely on safe, reliable operations.???Mark Segaloff. (Pasztor & Carey, 2010) Who is chairman of the local pilot union said,??? management team has been in a transformational state.??? (Pasztor & Carey, 2010) Although the tension between the management and the pilots, some of the company pilot gave Colgans marks for development training and ensuring that two inexperienced pilots aren??™t assigned to the same flight. There is no misconception, a safety report said, over the fact that Capt. Marvin allowed the engine turboprops speed, to drop dangerously low while approaching the airport, and then failed to react properly to warnings of an impending stall.
Analysis
The article talked about the Colgan case that led to death of the fifty passengers. In addition, the article discussed a debate has arisen between pilots and aviation safety specialists. The most important factor has been discussed is fatigue, pilots tried to blame Colgan air management by forcing their employee??™s to work maximum hours. On the other hand, Colgan??™s management reviewed their aspect of safety which has impacted on relations between their employees. Personally I found this article to be informative as it provided arguments from both the company and the employees, as well as an outside opinion being the NTA.

Child Abuse

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

2.0 Introduction

In this chapter, we present a review of various literatures on topics that have relevance to this study. The discussion that follows is conducted in such a way as to provide summaries and interrogations of what scholars have done in the areas of crime and criminology by way of their thematic coverage, theoretical perspectives, postulates, speculations, findings and recommendations. The theoretical review is presented first.

2.1 Theoretical Framework

The following theories were considered to be relevant to this study:
1. Cognitive Behavioural therapy
2. Psychosocial theory
3. The theory of Power and Control

1. Cognitive behavioral therapy (or cognitive behavioral therapies or CBT) is a psychotherapeutic approach that aims to solve problems concerning dysfunctional emotions, behaviours and cognitions through a goal-oriented, systematic procedure. The title is used in diverse ways to designate behaviour therapy, cognitive therapy, and to refer to therapy based upon a combination of basic behavioural and cognitive research (Francis, 2008).
There is empirical evidence that CBT is effective for the treatment of a variety of problems, including mood, anxiety, personality, eating, substance abuse, and psychotic disorders (Bet et. al 2006). Treatment is often manualized, with specific technique-driven brief, direct, and time-limited treatments for specific psychological disorders. CBT is used in individual therapy as well as group settings, and the techniques are often adapted for self-help applications. Some clinicians and researchers are more cognitive oriented (e.g. cognitive restructuring), while others are more behaviourally oriented (in vivo exposure therapy). Other interventions combine both (e.g. imaginal exposure therapy) (Foa, Rothbaum, & Furr, 2003).
CBT was primarily developed through a merging of behaviour therapy with cognitive therapy. While rooted in rather different theories, these two traditions found common ground in focusing on the “here and now”, and on alleviating symptoms (Rachman, 1997). Many CBT treatment programs for specific disorders have been evaluated for efficacy and effectiveness; the health-care trend of evidence-based treatment, where specific treatments for symptom-based diagnoses are recommended, has favoured CBT over other approaches such as psychodynamic treatments (Lambert, Bergin, Garfield, 2004). In the United Kingdom, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence recommends CBT as the treatment of choice for a number of mental health difficulties, including post-traumatic stress disorder, OCD, bulimia nervosa and clinical depression, and for the neurological condition chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (Jones, 2003).
The roots of CBT can be traced to the development of behaviour therapy in the early 20th century, the development of cognitive therapy in the 1960s, and the subsequent merging of the two. Behaviour therapeutical approaches appeared as early as 1924, with Mary Cover Jones work on the unlearning of fears in children (Fred, 2001). In 1937 Abraham Low developed cognitive training techniques for patient aftercare following psychiatric hospitalization (Donald, 2005). Low designed his techniques for use in his organization, Recovery International, which supports people recovering from mental illness (Low, 1945). Although Recovery International was originally led by Low, he later adapted the techniques for use in lay-run self-help groups operating under the same name (Wechsler, 1960).
It was during the period 1950 to 1970 that CBT became widely utilized, with researchers in the United States, the United Kingdom and South Africa who were inspired by the behaviourist learning theory of Ivan Pavlov, John B. Watson and Clark L. Hull (Stone, 2001). In Britain, this work was mostly focused on the neurotic disorders through the work of Joseph Wolpe, who applied the findings of animal experiments to his method of systematic desensitization (Wolpe, 1958), the precursor to todays fear reduction techniques (Ashton, 2003). British psychologist Hans Eysenck, inspired by the writings of Karl Popper, criticized psychoanalysis in arguing that “if you get rid of the symptoms, you get rid of the neurosis”(Eysenck, 1960), and presented behaviour therapy as a constructive alternative. In the United States, psychologists were applying the radical behaviourism of B. F. Skinner to clinical use. Much of this work was concentrated towards severe, chronic psychiatric disorders, such as psychotic behaviour and autism (Lovaas, 1951).
Although the early behavioural approaches were successful in many of the neurotic disorders, it had little success in treating depression (Stone, 2007). Behaviourism was also losing in popularity due to the so-called “cognitive revolution”. The therapeutic approaches of Albert Ellis and Aaron T. Beck gained popularity among behaviour therapists, despite the earlier behaviourist rejection of “mentalistic” concepts like thoughts and cognitions. Both these systems included behavioural elements and interventions and primarily concentrated on problems in the present. Albert Elliss system, originated in the early 1950s, was first called rational therapy, and can arguably be called one of the first forms of cognitive behavioural therapy. It was partly founded as a reaction against popular psychotherapeutic theories at the time, mainly psychoanalysis (Ellis, 1975). Aaron T. Beck, inspired by Albert Ellis, developed cognitive therapy in the 1960s (Aaron, 1975). Cognitive therapy rapidly became a favorite intervention technique to study in psychotherapy research in academic settings. In initial studies, it was often contrasted with behavioral treatments to see which was most effective. During the 1980s and 1990s, cognitive and behavioral techniques were merged into cognitive behavioral therapy. Pivotal to this merging was the successful development of treatments for panic disorder by David M. Clark in the UK and David H. Barlow in the US (2007).
Concurrently with the contributions of Albert Ellis and Beck, starting in the late 1950s and continuing through the 1970s, Arnold A. Lazarus developed what was arguably the first form of broad-spectrum cognitive behavioural therapy (1958). He later broadened the focus of behavioral treatment to incorporate cognitive aspects (Lazarus, 1971). When it became clear that optimizing therapys effectiveness and effecting durable treatment outcomes often required transcending more narrowly focused cognitive and behavioural methods, Arnold Lazarus expanded the scope of CBT to include physical sensations (as distinct from emotional states), visual images (as distinct from language-based thinking), interpersonal relationships, and biological factors.
Samuel Yochelson and Stanton Samenow pioneered the idea that cognitive behavioural approaches can be used successfully with a criminal population.
CBT includes a variety of approaches and therapeutic systems; some of the most well known include cognitive therapy, rational emotive behavior therapy and multimodal therapy. Defining the scope of what constitutes a cognitive??“behavioural therapy is a difficulty that has persisted throughout its development Dobson (Keith, Dozois, & David 2001).
The particular therapeutic techniques vary within the different approaches of CBT according to the particular kind of problem issues, but commonly may include keeping a diary of significant events and associated feelings, thoughts and behaviours; questioning and testing cognitions, assumptions, evaluations and beliefs that might be unhelpful and unrealistic; gradually facing activities which may have been avoided; and trying out new ways of behaving and reacting. Relaxation, mindfulness and distraction techniques are also commonly included. Cognitive behavioural therapy is often also used in conjunction with mood stabilizing medications to treat conditions like bipolar disorder. Its application in treating schizophrenia along with medication and family therapy is recognized by the NICE guidelines (see below) within the British NHS.
Going through cognitive behavioural therapy generally is not an overnight process for clients. Even after clients have learned to recognize when and where their mental processes go awry, it can in some cases take considerable time or effort to replace a dysfunctional cognitive-affective-behavioral process or habit with a more reasonable and adaptive one.
There are cognitive behavioral therapy sessions in which the user interacts with computer software (either on a PC, or sometimes via a voice-activated phone service), instead of face to face with a therapist. This can provide an option for patients, especially in light of the fact that there are not always therapists available, or the cost can be prohibitive. For people who are feeling depressed and withdrawn, the prospect of having to speak to someone about their innermost problems can be off-putting. In this respect, computerized CBT (especially if delivered online) can be a good option.
Randomized controlled trials have proven its effectiveness, and in February 2006 the UKs National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence recommended that CCBT be made available for use within the NHS across England and Wales, for patients presenting with mild to moderate depression, rather than immediately opting for antidepressant medication.[26]
Specific applications
CBT is applied to many clinical and non-clinical conditions and has been successfully used as a treatment for many clinical disorders, personality conditions and behavioural problems (Grahams, 2006). Whilst CBT is highly effective for a number of disorders it is important to note that cognitive behavioural therapy is unlikely to be effective in treating psychiatric problems caused solely by drug or alcohol abuse. It has been argued that the treatment of such patients should be directed at tackling their substance abuse problems (ideally aiming for complete abstinence) prior to the commencement of CBT.
A basic concept in CBT treatment of anxiety disorders is in vivo exposure??”a gradual exposure to the actual, feared stimulus. This treatment is based on the theory that the fear response has been classically conditioned and that avoidance negatively reinforces and maintains that fear. This “two-factor” model is often credited to O. Hobart Mowrer (Mowrer, 1960). Through exposure to the stimulus, this conditioning can be unlearned; this is referred to as extinction and habituation. A specific phobia, such as fear of spiders, can often be treated with in vivo exposure and therapist modeling in one session (Ost, 1989). Obsessive compulsive disorder is typically treated with exposure with response prevention. Social phobia has often been treated with exposure coupled with cognitive restructuring, such as in Heimbergs group therapy protocol (Turk, Heimberg, Hope, 2001). Evidence suggests that cognitive interventions improve the result of social phobia treatment (Wild et. al. 2006).
CBT has been shown to be effective in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder, and possibly more effective than pharmacological treatments in the long term.[33] In fact, one study of patients undergoing benzodiazepine withdrawal who had a diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder showed that those who received CBT had a very high success rate of discontinuing benzodiazepines compared to those who did not receive CBT. This success rate was maintained at 12 month follow up. Furthermore in patients who had discontinued benzodiazepines it was found that they no longer met the diagnosis of general anxiety disorder and that patients no longer meeting the diagnosis of general anxiety disorder was higher in the group who received CBT. Thus CBT can be an effective tool to add to a gradual benzodiazepine dosage reduction program leading to improved and sustained mental health benefits (Baillargeon et. al. 2006).
One etiological theory of depression is Aaron Becks cognitive theory of depression. His theory states that depressed people think the way they do because their thinking is biased towards negative interpretations. According to this theory, depressed people acquire a negative schema of the world in childhood and adolescence as an effect of stressful life events. When the person with such schemata encounters a situation that in some way resembles the conditions in which the original schema was learned, the negative schemata of the person are activated (Neale & Gerald, 2001). Beck also described a negative cognitive triad, made up of the negative schemata and cognitive biases of the person; Beck theorized that depressed individuals make negative evaluations of themselves, the world, and the future. Depressed people, according to this theory, have views such as, “I never do a good job”, “It is impossible to have a good day”, and “things will never get better.” A negative schema helps give rise to the cognitive bias, and the cognitive bias helps fuel the negative schema. This is the negative triad. Also, Beck proposed that depressed people often have the following cognitive biases: arbitrary inference, selective abstraction, over-generalization, magnification and minimization. These cognitive biases are quick to make negative, generalized, and personal inferences of the self, thus fuelling the negative schema (Neale & Gerald, 2001).
Cognitive behavioural therapy has been shown as an effective treatment for clinical depression (Dobson, 1989). A large-scale study in 2000 (Keller, McCullough, & Klein 2000) showed substantially higher results of response and remission (73% for combined therapy vs. 48% for either CBT or a particular discontinued antidepressant alone) when a form of cognitive behaviour therapy and that particular discontinued anti-depressant drug were combined than when either modality was used alone. Several meta-analyses have shown CBT effective in schizophrenia and the American Psychiatric Association includes CBT in its schizophrenia guideline as an evidence-based treatment. There is also some limited evidence of effectiveness for CBT in bipolar disorder and severe depression.
CBT can help patients with severe mental disorders to make sense of experiences that lead to symptoms, and to associate key thoughts and feelings with factors that predispose to or precipitate them. For instance, it can help to make rational connections between precipitating causes such as stimulants or hallucinogenic drugs and symptoms such as psychotic episodes. With the help of a therapist, patients may even devise and carry out behavioral experiments that can help them to learn how to improve their quality of life.
CBT with children and adolescents
The use of CBT has been extended to children and adolescents with positive results. It is often used to treat major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and symptoms related to trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. Significant work has been done in this area by Mark Reinecke and his colleagues at Northwestern University in the Clinical Psychology program in Chicago. Paula Barrett and her colleagues have also validated CBT as effective in a group setting for the treatment of youth and child anxiety using the Friends Program she authored. This CBT program has been recognized as best practice for the treatment of anxiety in children by the World Health Organization. CBT has been used with children and adolescents to treat a variety of conditions with good success.
CBT is also used as a treatment modality for children who have experienced complex posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic maltreatment (Briere, Scott, & Catherine 2006). It is in this regard that the theory becomes relevant to this study. As Brian (2006) has instructively pointed out, child abuse and maltreatment are particularly traumatic emotional conditions that can be better appreciated and understood in the context of their impacts on the psychological well-being of victims. Adolescents who have been subjected to abuse through neglect, physical attack (in form of beating etc), sexual exploitation, and so on, often experience a psychological withdrawal which is curable using CBT (Slone. 2008).
Psychosocial Theory

This is a theory which gives recognition to interpersonal influence of people close to us and the environment as essential characteristic in the development and maintenance of healthy and fulfilling human living. It states, in essence, that human development may be curtailed, distorted, damaged or warped by numerous interpersonal and environmental influences. The theory is usually linked to the writing of Florence Hollis in 1964 and 1970 (Elderson, 2006, Coulshed, 2001). The theory focuses on the integration of psychological and sociological functioning of the individual (intra and interpersonal and intersystemic behavior).

Another good example of this theory is the eight stages of psychosocial development as postulated by Erik Eriksson in 1954. Erickson??™s ???psychosocial??™ term is derived from the two source words ??“ namely psychological (or the root, ???psycho??™ relating to the mind brain, personality, etc) and social (external relationships and environment), both at the heart of Erickson??™s theory. Each stage involves a crisis of two opposing emotional forces. A helpful term used by Eriksson for these opposing forces is ???contrary dispositions??™. Each crisis stage relates to a corresponding life stage and its inherent challenges. Eriksson used the words ???syntonic??™ for the first-listed ???positive??™ disposition in each crisis (e.g. Trust) and ???dystonic??™ for the second-listed ???negative??™ disposition (e.g. Mistrust). To signify the opposing or conflicting relationship between each pair of forces or dispositions Eriksson connected them with the word ???versus??™, which he abbreviated to ???v??™. (Versus is Latin, meaning turned towards or against).

The stages of development in Erickson??™s theory are illustrated in Table 1 below.

Table 1: Stages of Psychosocial development

|Stage (age) |Psychosocial crisis |Significant relations |Psychosocial modalities |Psychosocial virtues |Maladaptations & |
| | | | | |malignancies |
|I (0-1) — |trust vs mistrust |mother |to get, to give in return |hope, faith |sensory distortion — |
|infant | | | | |withdrawal |
|II (2-3) — |autonomy vs shame and |parents |to hold on, to let go |will, determination |impulsivity — compulsion |
|toddler |doubt | | | | |
|III (3-6) — |initiative vs guilt |family |to go after, to play |purpose, courage |ruthlessness — inhibition |
|preschooler | | | | | |
|IV (7-12 or so) — |industry vs inferiority|neighborhood and school|to complete, to make |competence |narrow virtuosity — inertia|
|school-age child | | |things together | | |
|V (12-18 or so) — |ego-identity vs |peer groups, role |to be oneself, to share |fidelity, loyalty |fanaticism — repudiation |
|adolescence |role-confusion |models |oneself | | |
|VI (the 20??™s) — |intimacy vs isolation |partners, friends |to lose and find oneself |love |promiscuity — exclusivity |
|young adult | | |in a | | |
| | | |another | | |
|VII (late 20??™s to 50??™s)|generativity vs |household, workmates |to make be, to take care |care |overextension — rejectivity|
|– middle adult |self-absorption | |of | | |
|VIII (50??™s and beyond) |integrity vs despair |mankind or ???my kind??? |to be, through having |wisdom |presumption — despair |
|– old adult | | |been, to face not being | | |

Source: Eriksson, H.E. (1959) Identity and the Life Cycle Psychological Issues 1, 2, 23-24

From the table above, Erickson??™s psychosocial stages of development include the following:

1. Trust v Mistrust

This is the first stage in which the infant will develop a healthy balance between trust and mistrust if fed and cared for and not over-indulged or over-protected. Abuse or neglect or cruelty will destroy trust and foster mistrust. Mistrust increases a person??™s resistance to risk-exposure and exploration.

On the other hand, if the infant is insulated from all and any feelings of surprise and normality, or unfailingly indulged, this will create a false sense of trust amounting to sensory distortion, in other words a failure to appreciate reality. Infants who grow up to trust are more able to hope and have faith that ???things will generally be okay??™.

2. Autonomy v Shame and Doubt

Autonomy means self-reliance. This is independence of thought, and a basic confidence to think and act for oneself. Shame and doubt mean what they say, and obviously inhibit self-expression and developing one??™s own ideas, opinions and sense of self. Toilet and potty training is a significant part of this crisis.

3. Initiative v Guilt

Initiative is the capability to devise actions or projects, and a confidence and belief that it is okay to do so, even with a risk of failure or making mistakes. Guilt means what is says, and in this context is the feeling that it is wrong or inappropriate to instigate something of one??™s own design. Guilt results from being admonished or believing that something is wrong or likely to attract disapproval. Initiative flourishes when adventure and game-playing is encouraged, irrespective of how daft and silly it seems to the grown-up in charge.

Parents, carers and older siblings, spouse and friends (as the case may be) have a challenge to get the balance right between giving cancer patients enough space and encouragement so as to foster a sense of purpose and confidence, but to protect against danger, and also to enable a sensible exposure to trial and error, and to the consequences of mistakes, without which an irresponsible or reckless tendency can develop.

4. Industry v Inferiority

Industry here refers to purposeful or meaningful activity. It??™s the development of competence and skills, and a confidence to use a ???method??™, and is a crucial aspect of school years experience. A child who experiences the satisfaction of achievement ??“ of anything positive will move towards successful negotiation of this crisis stage. A child who experiences failure at school tasks and work, or worse still who is denied the opportunity to discover and develop their own capabilities and strengths and unique potential, quite naturally is prone to feeling inferior and useless. Inferiority is feeling useless; unable to contribute, unable to cooperate or work in a team to create something, with the low self-esteem that accompanies such feelings. In the case of cancer patients, there is need to help them develop a sense of purpose and create an atmosphere of camaraderie that would ensure that they live a productive life.

5. Identity v Role Confusion

Identify means essentially how a person sees themselves in relation to their world. It??™s a sense of self or individuality in the context of life and what lies ahead. Role confusion is the negative perspective ??“ an absence of identity ??“ meaning that the person cannot see clearly or at all who they are and how they can relate positively with their environment. This stage coincides with puberty or adolescence, and the reawakening of the sexual urge whose dormancy typically characterizes the previous stage.

Young people struggled to belong and to be accepted and affirmed, and yet also to become individuals.

6. Intimacy v Isolation

Intimacy means the process of achieving relationships with family and marital or mating partner(s). Eriksson explained this stage also in terms of sexual mutuality ??“ the giving and receiving of physical and emotional connection, support, love, comfort, trust, and all the other elements that we would typically associate with healthy adult relationships conducive to mating and child-rearing. There is a strong reciprocal feature in the intimacy experienced during this stage ??“ giving and receiving especially between sexual or marital partners.

Isolation conversely means being and feeling excluded from the usual life experiences of dating and mating and mutually loving relationships. This logically is characterized by feeling of loneliness, alienation, social withdrawal or non-participation.

7. Generativity v Stagnation

Generativity derives from the word generation, as in parents and children, and specifically the unconditional giving that characterizes positive parental love and care for their offspring. Stagnation is an extension of intimacy which turns inwards in the form of self-interest and self-absorption.

It??™s the disposition that represents feelings of selfishness, self-indulgence, greed, lack of interest in young people and future generations, and the wider world.

8. Integrity v Despair

Integrity means feeling at peace with oneself and the world. No regrets or recriminations. The linking between the stages is perhaps clearer here than anywhere: people are more likely to look back on their lives positively and happily if they have left the world a better place than they found it in whatever way, to whatever extent. There lies integrity and acceptance.

Despair and/or ???Disgust??™ (i.e., rejective denial, or ???sour grapes??™ feeling towards what life might have been) represent the opposite disposition: feelings of wasted opportunities, regrets, wishing to be able to turn back the clock and have a second chance.

The basic assumptions of the theory which has relevant to this study are:

1. The behaviour of an individual depends on his/her psychological state as well as his/her social environment;
2. A person??™s past is important in seeking to understand his or her current behaviour.
It follows then that if certain factors (including psychological factors) within an individual social environment imposes more stress on the individual than he can cope with, his psychological state is disturbed. This could result in an abnormal behaviour or a condition of psychiatric illness. However, if the social environment of an individual is conducive or where he has enough social support to cushion the negative effect of some of these factors, he is more likely to be in good psychological state and hence enjoy good mental health.

The psychosocial theory would prove very useful in the generation of questions and in making of recommendations that will assist the caregivers, relatives, government and even social worker in the proper management of abused adolescents. This theory laid emphasis on the past experiences of abused adolescents within their social environment. These experiences include the amount of familial and extra-familial attention they receive, his/her social economic status, loss of a close relation etc.

Drawing from the theory, it follows that helping children or adolescents who have suffered one form of abuse or the other to fully recover and be integrated into the community requires effort of the victims??™, relations, parents others and professionals.

The Theory of Power and Control
In many instances, abuse and violence arise out of a perceived need for power and control, a form of bullying and social learning of abuse. Abusers efforts to dominate their partners have been attributed to low self-esteem or feelings of inadequacy, unresolved childhood conflicts, the stress of poverty, hostility and resentment toward women (misogyny), hostility and resentment toward men (misandry), hostility and resentment toward children (misandry), personality disorders, genetic tendencies and sociocultural influences, among other possible causative factors.
Most authorities seem to agree that abusive personalities result from a combination of several factors, to varying degrees [Elliott 1989]
A causalist view of child abuse is that it is a strategy to gain or maintain power and control over the victim. This view is in alignment with Bancrofts “cost-benefit” theory that abuse rewards the perpetrator in ways other than, or in addition to, simply exercising power over his or her target(s). He cites evidence in support of his argument that, in most cases, abusers are quite capable of exercising control over themselves, but choose not to do so for various reasons [Elliott 1989]
An alternative view is that abuse arises from powerlessness and externalizing/projecting this and attempting to exercise control of the victim. It is an attempt to gain or maintain power and control over the victim but even in achieving this it cannot resolve the powerlessness driving it. Such behaviours have addictive aspects leading to a cycle of abuse or violence. Mutual cycles develop when each party attempts to resolve their own powerlessness in attempting to assert control (Elliott 1989).
Questions of power and control are integral to the widely utilized Duluth Domestic Abuse Intervention Project. They developed “Power and Control Wheel” to illustrate this: it has power and control at the center, surrounded by spokes the titles of which include:

Source: The Duluth Domestic Abuse Intervention Project, (2007) (25 – 26).

??? Coercion and threats
??? Intimidation
??? Emotional abuse
??? Isolation
??? Minimizing, denying and blaming
??? Using children
??? Economic abuse
??? Male privilege
The model attempts to address abuse by one-sidedly challenging the misuse of power by the perpetrator. Critics of this model suggest that the one-sided focus is problematic as resolution can only be achieved when all participants acknowledge their responsibilities, and identify and respect mutual purpose. The power wheel model is not intended to assign personal responsibility, enhance respect for mutual purpose or assist victims and perpetrators in resolving their differences. It is an informational tool designed to help individuals understand the dynamics of power operating in abusive situations and identify various methods of abuse [Elliott 1989]
Unless or until more parents identify themselves and go on record as having been abused by their children, and in a manner whereby the nature and extent of their abuse can be socially or clinically assessed, parents will continue to be identified as the most frequent perpetrators of physical and emotional violence [Buzawa & Buzawa 2000)
This theory sees abuse as arising out of a need by the individual to assume control or exercise some power over the partner, here the abuser wants to control and dominate the partner, thus the resort to all forms of abuse (including violence) to still any opposition or form of revolt against his domination of the partner and because of the desire to control and have dominion over his partner the individual results to violence which gradually becomes a way of life with him.
2.2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Child abuse can take many forms, including direct physical violence ranging from unwanted physical contact to rape and murder. Indirect physical violence may include destruction of objects, striking or throwing objects near the victim, or harm to pets. In addition to physical violence, child abuse often includes mental or emotional abuse, including verbal threats of physical violence to the victim, the self, or others including children, ranging from explicit, detailed and impending to implicit and vague as to both content and time frame, and verbal violence, including threats, insults, put-downs, and attacks. Nonverbal threats may include gestures, facial expressions, and body postures. Psychological abuse may also involve economic and/or social control, such as controlling the victims money and other economic resources, preventing the victim from seeing friends and relatives, actively sabotaging the victims social relationships, and isolating the victim from social contacts [Carswell 2006).

2:2:1 Physical violence

Physical violence is the intentional use of physical force with the potential for causing injury, harm, disability, or death, for example, hitting, shoving, biting, restraint, kicking, or use of a weapon.

In most relationships where there is a struggle for dominance by any of the partners or where there are pressures which cannot be controlled by the partners, there is always a tendency for the partners to result to violence expressed physically through beating, punching etc, these physical expression of violence to a large extent affects the psychological disposition and well-being of adolescents (Christine, 2007) and could even affect his/her performance in school or at work because of the abuse he or she may have suffered may no longer be in that tip top shape to perform at his or her utmost and this may result directly in reduced productivity and also increase workplace insecurity(Grenoble, 2003)

Sexual violence

Sexual violence is divided into three categories:

??? use of physical force to compel a person to engage in a sexual act against his or her will, whether or not the act is completed, attempted or completed sex act involving a person who is unable to understand the nature or condition of the act, unable to decline participation, or unable to communicate unwillingness to engage in the sexual act, e.g., because of underage immaturity, illness, disability, or the influence of alcohol or other drugs, or because of intimidation or pressure;

??? and abusive sexual contact, the effects of this acts of violence on the individual is usually psychological and sometimes physical too (Street, 2006).

It is also quite traumatic and disorientating and to a large extents affects the performance of the adolescents in the workplace or in school, as sometimes such violence may result in the victim being hospitalized for several days. It also reduces the workers lack of concentration in the workplace thus resulting in accidents as the worker most times would not be concentrating on the job but would rather be thinking of ways and means to avert further abuse and to find solace from such violence (Schfell, 2007).

Emotional abuse

Emotional abuse (also called psychological abuse or mental abuse) can include humiliating the victim privately or publicly, controlling what the victim can and cannot do, withholding information from the victim, deliberately doing something to make the victim feel diminished or embarrassed, isolating the victim from friends and family, implicitly blackmailing the victim by harming others when the victim expresses independence or happiness, or denying the victim access to money or other basic resources and necessities (Wordsworth, 2001).

Such abuse may affect the adolescent in several ways, it may create a reduction in the individual??™s performance in school or at work especially if such abuse is perpetuated in the individual??™s place of work or where the individual??™s co-workers are, it will make the individual become susceptible to mistakes at the workplace which may increase accidents at the workplace (Sand, 2004).

Children who are being emotionally abused often feel as if they do not own themselves; rather, they may feel that their abuser has nearly total control over them (Schfell, 2007). Children undergoing emotional abuse often suffer from depression, which puts them at increased risk for suicide, eating disorders, and drug and alcohol abuse and this creates a serious drop down in their productivity and also open them to accidents in school or workplace.

Economic abuse

Economic abuse is when the abuser has complete control over the victims money and other economic resources. Usually, this involves putting the victim on a strict “allowance,” withholding money at will and forcing the victim to beg for the money until the abuser gives them some money. It is common for the victim to receive less money as the abuse continues. This also includes (but is not limited to) preventing the victim from finishing education or obtaining employment, or intentionally squandering or misusing communal resources (Torres 2000).

This creates a serious disconnect for the victim in his or her school or workplace, as there is a gradual reduction in the performance of the individual and lack of concentration in the school or workplace. The victim feels cheated and inadequately compensated for his or her inputs and thus the victim no longer feels that the work is worth it. Such lack of concentration may result in accidents in the workplace and definitely a reduction in performance.

Child sexual abuse

Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent abuses a child for sexual stimulation (Helen, 2004). Forms of CSA include asking or pressuring a child to engage in sexual activities (regardless of the outcome), indecent exposure of the genitals to a child, displaying pornography to a child, actual sexual contact against a child, physical contact with the childs genitals, viewing of the childs genitalia without physical contact, or using a child to produce child pornography. The effects of child sexual abuse include depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, propensity to re-victimization in adulthood, and physical injury to the child, among other problems. Sexual abuse by a family member is a form of incest, and can result in more serious and long-term psychological trauma, especially in the case of parental incest. Child sexual abuse is also strongly connected to the development of Complex post-traumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder.

It has been estimated that approximately 15% to 25% of women and 5% to 15% of men were sexually abused when they were children. Most sexual abuse offenders are acquainted with their victims; approximately 30% are relatives of the child, most often brothers, fathers, mothers, uncles or cousins; around 60% are other acquaintances such as friends of the family, babysitters, or neighbors; strangers are the offenders in approximately 10% of child sexual abuse cases.

Child Abuse in Varied Context

Since the recognition in 1962 of the seriousness of child physical abuse (Kempe, Silverman, Steele, Droegemueller, & Silver,1962), child maltreatment has received heightened media and scholarly attention. Abuse estimates soared following the implementation of mandatory reporting laws in the United States during the 1960s and 1970s (Lindsey, 2004). Moreover, anonymous surveys demonstrate the virtually universal practice of parental physical discipline of children and even more severe parent-child violence. The media typically spotlight the most brutal and fatal instances of child abuse, neglecting that most cases of maltreatment emerge from the routine practice of physical discipline strategies. Physical abuse often results from an unintended escalation while administering physical punishment for perceived child transgressions (Herren-kohl, Herrenkohl, & Egolf, 2003), and maltreatment is often conceptualized as on a continuum with physical discipline (Rodriguez & Sutherland, 1999; Whipple & Richey, 2007). Although physical discipline and child abuse can be considered variants of parental aggression, abusive behaviour is generally deemed unacceptable, whereas public opinion regarding corporal punishment is clearly divided. This debate over the usefulness of physical punishment has persisted for generations despite support from experts (e.g., Straus, 2001) regarding the need to discontinue all forms of family violence. In light of calls to end all legalized forms of corporal punishment toward children (e.g., Hammarberg & Newell, 2002), researchers must address this controversy over physical punishment by compiling further evidence regarding the immediate and long-term functioning of children receiving any physical punishment. The risk factors are considered similar for both child physical abuse and physical punishment (Straus, 2003).
Consequently, it is important to ascertain whether the effects of physical abuse and physical discipline overlap. To date, the evidence indicates that child maltreatment is characterized as detrimental to victims, resulting in both short-term and long-term sequelae in psychosocial and cognitive functioning (e.g., Fantazzo, 2000; Starr & Wolfe, 2001). Thus physically abused children are more likely than non-abused children to demonstrate such characteristics as oppositionality, behaviour problems, depression, fearfulness, social withdrawal, and lower self-esteem. For example, abused children were found to be more likely to display higher levels of depressive symptomatology and hopelessness as well as lower levels of self-esteem than comparison groups (Kazdin, Moser, Colbus, & Bell, 2005).
Another study confirmed increased depression and hopelessness in children with abuse histories as well as a tendency toward an external locus of control (Allen & Tarnowski, 2001). Moreover, a more maladaptive, depressogenic attributional style was reported for abused children (Cerezo & Frias, 2004). Thus children who are victims of abuse display many signs reflective of internalizing disorders. Some indications in the research, however, point to negative outcomes ensuing from corporal punishment in the absence of parental behaviours injurious enough to qualify as abusive (e.g., Straus & Kantor,2004).
Child maltreatment research has often relied on research designs that assess children after the fact when confirmed abuse has already occurred. Retrospective research strategies, however, are typically subject to recall biases and errors. It remains unclear whether problematic symptoms manifested in some abused children actually appear in non-clinical samples of children who have received less serious forms of parental aggression, such as physical punishment. Theoretically, some of the emotional and behavioural difficulties associated with physical child abuse may develop primarily as a function of parents harsher disciplinary styles and attitudes. Thus the difficulties experienced by children may differ depending on whether they grow up with more versus less physical discipline. Research has indeed supported a relationship between childhood history of harsh discipline and adult psychopathology (Holmes & Robins, 2008), although by using retrospective research designs. Another study demonstrated that the more severe the discipline experienced by the child, the more aggressively the child behaves (i.e., externalizing behaviour problems; Weiss, Dodge, Bates, & Pettit, 2002), although these researchers did not find a relationship between physical discipline and internalizing behaviour problems. Another study supported discipline as a significant predictor of behaviour problems in children (Brenner & Fox, 2008).
One dissertation indicated higher depression and anxiety symptoms for those children cat-egorized in high discipline risk groups (Dingwall, 2007). Yet noticeably more research, as well as public discussion, has centered on the influence of physical discipline leading to aggressive and externalizing behaviour problems via social learning. The preponderance of research literature ties corporal punishment to aggressive behaviour (e.g., Straus, 2001), whereas the association of physical punishment with internalizing problems remains less apparent in the literature. Although the connection between physical discipline and aggression is clearly meaningful to both family and society, research continues to overlook its association with the emotional life of the child. Anecdotally, we hear of childrens subjective reports of distress at physical discipline (e.g., Willow & Hyder, 2008), although actual empirical research investigating the childs internal experience of discipline is lacking. Whereas both child and adolescent boys reportedly demonstrate more disruptive behaviour and externalizing difficulties compared with girls (e.g., Crijnen, Achenbach, & Verhulst, 2007), several studies of pre-pubertal children have not detected gender differences in depression or attributional style (e.g., Joiner & Wagner, 2005; Thompson, Kaslow, Weiss, & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2008). Indeed, an interesting line of inquiry has begun to investigate the emergence of gender differences in depression and anxiety during adolescence (Hayward & Sanborn, 2002). Thus, comparing the internalizing processes for pre-pubertal boys and girls growing up with harsh physical disciplinarians would be meaningful. Some components of the internalizing domain mirroring those drawn from the child maltreatment literature (including depression, anxiety, and attributional style) may be particularly important to investigate in children receiving physical punishment.
Although some research has included symptoms of depression and anxiety, depressogenic attributional style-a risk factor for depression as conceptualized by Abramson and colleagues (Abramson, Metalsky, & Alloy, 2000; Abramson, Seligman, & Teasdale, 2003)-has been relatively neglected in research on the physical discipline of children. Maladaptive attributions, as delineated in the learned helplessness model of depression, could potentially develop in response to uncontrollable physical discipline, which may in turn lead to depressive or anxious symptomatology in children. Further, of particular interest in the current study was the element of internal locus of control, given that findings in the maltreatment literature (Allen & Tarnowski, 2000) suggest that physical discipline is likely to be perceived as outside of the childs control. In addition, research on attributional style has concentrated on childrens explanation of both positive and negative events in their lives, with support across samples that both are relevant to childrens depression (Gladstone & Kaslow, 2006; Joiner & Wagner, 2005; Thompson et al., 2008). Both are relevant as well in maltreated children (Kress & Vandenberg, 2008; Runyon& Kenny, 2002).
A study by Rodriguez (2003) investigated several symptoms linked to internalizing dimensions in an attempt to determine whether a non-clinical sample of children receiving physical discipline demonstrates difficulties typically associated with child abuse victims. Children whose parents hold more physically abusive attitudes and those who engage in harsher discipline were compared with lower risk parents. Families with no established history of abuse were selected in order to assess whether increased depressive or anxious symptomatology was detected in children whose parents had a harsher discipline style and abusive attitudes. Moreover, to examine how discipline attitudes and practices may relate to how children explain events in their own lives, childrens attributional style was also examined, specifically their explanations for both positive and negative events as well as how they internalize responsibility, that is, locus of control.
Orr et al. (2002) have observed that surveys of adolescent behaviour often rely upon single-item, self-report measures. When this method is used, it is quite possible to misclassify experiences, particularly when assessing sensitive subjects such as adolescent sexual experiences (Newcomer & Udry, 2005). Given this reality, researchers have attempted to assess the reliability of certain behaviours in adolescent sexuality research, such as timing of initial sexual experiences and lifetime sexual intercourse (Alexander, Somerfield, Ensminger, Johnson, & Kim, 2003; Capaldi, 2006). The consistency of adolescent self-report of initial sexual experience timing, for example, appears poor (Alexander et al., 2003; Capaldi, 2006). In light of this fact, it seems possible that self-report of other sensitive experiences, such as childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may also be inconsistently reported in adolescent populations. CSA is linked to wide-ranging emotional, behavioural, and adjustment problems including adolescent pregnancy, aggression, anxiety, depression, risky sexual behaviours, low self-esteem, school problems, and withdrawn behaviours (Kendall-Tackett, Williams, & Finkelhor, 2007; Luster & Small, 2007).
The relationship between CSA and future behavioural problems has previously been demonstrated; however, the specific psychosocial mechanisms leading to these outcomes are not clearly understood (Orr et al. 2002). One reason for this lack of clarity is methodological in nature, given that CSA measurement varies greatly across studies (Briere, 2002; Goldman & Padayachi, 2000; Roosa, Reyes, Reinholtz, & Angelini, 2008). For example, in many self-report questionnaire studies, CSA is measured by a single item (Bensley, Van Eenwyk, Spieker, & Schoder, 1999; Luster & Small, 2007; Thompson, Potter, Sanderson, & Maibach, 2007), which eliminates the possibility of assessing internal reliability. Other studies have used more extensive measurement methods, such as clinical interviews or medical/psychosocial evaluations (Brown, Kessel, Lourie, Ford, & Lipsitt, 2007; Meyer, Muenzenmaier, Cancienne, & Struening, 2006).
Using an interview to assess CSA allows for information concerning the duration and nature of the abuse to be gained. However, these methods are time intensive and the reliability of interview methods has been poorly evaluated. Even relatively brief scales assessing childhood sexual abuse, such as the Early Sexual Experiences Checklist (Miller & Johnson, 1998) and the Unwanted Childhood Sexual Experiences Questionnaire (Stevenson, 1998), are lengthy: 20 items and 13 items respectively. In sum, studies using brief scales to assess CSA are noticeably absent (Orr et. al 2002). Using a brief self-report assessment of CSA is important when assessing a wide range of behaviours and psychosocial attitudes in one study.
Methodological research concerning the stability of CSA reporting over time has not been conducted even though researchers have called for data to be collected at more than one time point to assess for developmental differences in symptomatology (Kendall-Tackett, Williams, & Finkelhor, 2007). In an extensive literature search of studies related to CSA reporting, only one recent study (Costello, Angold, March, & Fairbank, 2008) measured the reliability of CSA reporting across two time points. In a study by Orr et. al (2003)-the focus of which was to assess the utility of a measure of post-traumatic stress disorder( PTSD) with children-10 participants indicated they had been sexually abused. Two weeks later, 9 participants reported that they had been sexually abused, resulting in a Cohens Kappa correlation of .81. Hence, a significant gap in the CSA research literature exists in terms of stability of reporting. Self-report consistency at different time points is one approach to assessment of reporting stability (i.e., correctly identifying as non-CSA or CSA). This method has proven CSA Stability effective in past studies of adolescent self-report consistency (Alexander et al., 2003; Capaldi, 2006).
Using two time points was expected to create three distinct groups of CSA reporting: consistent non-reporters (deny CSA at both time points), inconsistent reporters (endorse CSA at one point and deny at the other time point), and consistent reporters (endorse CSA at both time points). If the two-time-point approach reduces misclassification, we expect the following: the consistent non-reporters group will include a lower proportion of persons with a true experience of abuse; the inconsistent reporters group will include persons with true positive and false positive reports; and the consistent reporters group ill include a larger proportion of true positive reports and a smaller proportion of false positive reports. If the preceding premise is true, we would then expect problem behaviours associated with CSA to be differentially distributed across the three groups. This is expected given that CSA is associated with specific problem behaviours. As a result, it is expected that consistent non-reporters would have lower levels of problem behaviours, inconsistent reporters would have intermediate levels, and consistent reporters would have higher levels. Inter-mediate levels of problem behaviour among inconsistent reporters were expected because their identification of CSA experiences may be influenced by temporal stress, such as relationship difficulty or other life stressors. The demonstration of differential problem behaviour involvement will provide another measure of validity. Additionally, endorsement of two or more CSA items should be related to an increased likelihood of consistent reporting.
Child abuse is a complex phenomenon with multiple causes (Fontana, 2004). Understanding the causes of abuse is crucial to addressing the problem of child abuse. According to Ross (2006) parents who physically abuse their spouses are more likely than others to physically abuse their children. However, it is impossible to know whether marital strife is a cause of child abuse, or if both the marital strife and the abuse are caused by tendencies in the abuser.

Substance abuse can be a major contributing factor to child abuse. One U.S. study found that parents with documented substance abuse, most commonly alcohol, cocaine, and heroin, were much more likely to mistreat their children, and were also much more likely to reject court-ordered services and treatments (Goshko, 2001)

Another study found that over two thirds of cases of child maltreatment involved parents with substance abuse problems. This study specifically found relationships between alcohol and physical abuse, and between cocaine and sexual abuse (Famularo, Kinscherff, & Fenton, 2002).

Children with a history of neglect or physical abuse are at risk of developing psychiatric problem, or a disorganized attachment style (Malinosky-Rummell, & Hansen, 2003). Disorganized attachment is associated with a number of developmental problems, including dissociative symptoms, as well as anxiety, depressive, and acting out symptoms (Lyons-Ruth, 2006). A study by Dante Cicchetti (2000) found that 80% of abused and maltreated infants exhibited symptoms of disorganized attachment. When some of these children become parents, especially if they suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), dissociative symptoms, and other sequelae of child abuse, they may encounter difficulty when faced with their infant and young childrens needs and normative distress, which may in turn lead to adverse consequences for their childs social-emotional development (Robinson et. al 2007). Despite these potential difficulties, psychosocial intervention can be effective, at least in some cases, in changing the ways maltreated parents think about their young children (Liebowitz, 2006).

Victims of childhood abuse, it is claimed, also suffer from different types of physical health problems later in life. Some reportedly suffer from some type of chronic head, abdominal, pelvic, or muscular pain with no identifiable reason. Even though the majority of childhood abuse victims know or believe that their abuse is, or can be, the cause of different health problems in their adult life, for the great majority their abuse was not directly associated with those problems, indicating that sufferers were most likely diagnosed with other possible causes for their health problems, instead of their childhood abuse (Cox, 2003).

The effects of child abuse vary, depending on the type of abuse. A 2006 study found that childhood emotional and sexual abuse were strongly related to adult depressive symptoms, while exposure to verbal abuse and witnessing of domestic violence had a moderately strong association, and physical abuse a moderate one. For depression, experiencing more than two kinds of abuse exerted synergetically stronger symptoms. Sexual abuse was particularly deleterious in its intrafamilial form, for symptoms of depression, anxiety, dissociation, and limbic irritability. Childhood verbal abuse had a stronger association with anger-hostility than any other type of abuse studied, and was second only to emotional abuse in its relationship with dissociative symptoms. More generally, in the case of 23 of the 27 illnesses listed in the questionnaire of a French INSEE survey, some statistically significant correlations were found between repeated illness and family traumas encountered by the child before the age of 18 years. (Middlebrooks & Audage 2008). These relationships show that inequality in terms of illness and suffering is not only social. It also has its origins in the family, where it is associated with the degrees of lasting affective problems (lack of affection, parental discord, the prolonged absence of a parent, or a serious illness affecting either the mother or father) that individuals report having experienced in childhood.

New research illustrates that there are strong associations between exposure to child abuse in all its forms and higher rates of many chronic conditions. The strongest evidence comes from the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) series of studies which show correlations between exposure to abuse or neglect and higher rates in adulthood of chronic conditions, high-risk health behaviors and shortened lifespan (Middlebrooks & Audage, 2008). A recent publication, Hidden Costs in Health Care: The Economic Impact of Violence and Abuse, makes the case that such exposure represents a serious and costly public-health issue that should be addressed by the healthcare system.

Cohen et. al (2006) have identified a number of treatments for victims of child abuse. One of them is the trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy, first developed to treat sexually abused children, and which, as we noted in the theoretical framework under girding this research, is now used for victims of any kind of trauma. It targets trauma-related symptoms in children including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), clinical depression, and anxiety. It also includes a component for non-offending parents. Several studies have found that sexually abused children undergoing TF-CBT improved more than children undergoing certain other therapies.

Abuse-focused cognitive behavioural therapy was designed for children who have experienced physical abuse. It targets externalizing behaviours and strengthens prosocial behaviours. Offending parents are included in the treatment, to improve parenting skills/practices. It is supported by one randomized study.

Child-parent psychotherapy was designed to improve the child-parent relationship following the experience of domestic violence. It targets trauma-related symptoms in infants, toddlers, and preschoolers, including PTSD, aggression, defiance, and anxiety. It is supported by two studies of one sample.

Other forms of treatment include group therapy, play therapy, and art therapy. Each of these types of treatment can be used to better assist the client, depending on the form of abuse they have experienced. Play therapy and art therapy are ways to get children more comfortable with therapy by working on something that they enjoy (colouring, drawing, painting, etc.). The design of a childs artwork can be a symbolic representation of what they are feeling, relationships with friends or family, and more. Being able to discuss and analyze a childs artwork can allow a professional to get a better insight of the child.

RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

i. There will be no significant joint effect of physical abuse, sexual abuse, and financial abuse on emotional stability of adolescents.

ii. There will be no significant relative effect of physical abuse, sexual abuse, and financial abuse on emotional stability of adolescents.

iii. There will be no significant relationship between emotional stability of adolescents in secondary school and physical abuse.

iv. There will be no significant relationship between emotional stability of adolescents in secondary school and sexual abuse

———————–
Coercion and threats
r

Emotional abuse

Intimidation

Isolation

Isolation, lack of support

Minimizing, denying and blaming

Using children
of resources

Economic abuse

Power and Control

Male privilege
egation and institutionalization

Global Notes

Intro:
-the castle sets scene for viewers see challenges of living in a global context + globalisation on world and shown in ??“ n how global village affects characters.
-complex term to define, world shrunk by means of media types and world wide web,
-in castles case ??“ barlo group(big business,global) attempt to show superiority by taking kerrigans ( village) house
-expressed to their values, attitudes,viewers fell sympathetic and back them through the conflict.

Pg1:
-commences diegetic sounds used to rep simplistic world kerri-inhabit, birds mower,kids,dogs
-sounds set as credits roll on black screen ??“in this montage positive sounds suggesting family in surburbia or a community.

Pg2:
-Then introduced to naive narrator ??“dale, tells the story he himself doesn??™t fully understand events that unfold.
-this innocence,ignorance,child like which emphasises they are simple people with simple values who are disconnected from neg aspects of global.
-Kerrigan??™s rep positive elements of village and beliefs a close knit community provide.

Pg3:
-Through narration we are shown series of quick scenes which characterises family and gives insight to their everyday life.
-brings responder into their life/home, highlights their beliefs/attitudes/values.
-Simple use of camera shots and movements ??“shaking camera ??“ used to rep home movie
-brings audience in to view Kerrigan??™s values beliefs attitudes.

Pg4:
-Narration n simple shots that depict house and family help introduce family to audience
-like mid shots of family at meal time, help establish the relationship between characters
-effect we see they are a close and loving family
-through glimpse of lives the audience are endeared into their values and beliefs
-also shows aud how harmless they are n how accept global even though they are discon from it
-also shown kerri accept multiculturalism as shown in their son in law(con), neighbour(leb)
-acceptance also show in their extreme interest in thai trip(whole family)
-helps emphasise their acceptance of other cultures and multitcutursalism

Pg5:
Next scene ??“council does evaluation of property, this is rep of collision between kerri and global
-extreme close up of asse hand knock-symbolic of clash of values/attitudes that is about to occur
-conveys disruption of harmony of the family.

Pg6:
-reading letter scene is foreshadowed by Darryl??™s statement ???I recon were in for a bit of a surprise
-ironic but not in positive way-highlights lack of understanding of kerri and the way a big business can acquire their desires
-reinforces innocence because barlo group has opposite values to their own
Leads Darryl to say ???I??™m starting to feel how the aborigines feel??? as a result of losing his house- forces responder to consider his/her feelings on issue
-this scene clearly illustrates the affect that globalisation and colonisation has on developm of identity based on a sense of place
-this idea is shared with aus viewers who are aware of taking of land from aborig links to global and how government has taken their land and also Kerrigan??™s home

Pg7:
-high court scene establishing shot of low camera and mid shot of Darryl /Dennis/Laurie from behind looking up at h.c of aus show them as small and insignificant
-the dialogue of Dennis saying ???im shittin myself??? shows he is concerned about the outcome/fearful of power of barlo group
-irony of this scene is that the crux of their argument that wins the kerri there home back is their values beliefs
-and their moral beliefs against an immoral organisation and the consistent repetition of its not a house it??™s a home
-has some major similarities to Eddie mabo case which reinforces to audience the importance of this win.

Pg8:
-Movie concluded with the kerri in the future and how happy the family is in their home
-the end montage used with a close up of dale saying ???my name is dale Kerrigan and that was my story???
-this framing device efficiently portrays the happiness of kerri family despite their experiences which arose as a result of living in a global village.

Conclusion –

Global Maro Practices

Global Macro Practices in Human Services
Hunger is a huge issue that affects many people around the world. Based on the world population in October of 2010, which was estimated at 6.8 billion people worldwide, 925 million people around the world did not receive adequate amounts of food and went hungry (Hunger Notes, 2011). There are many reasons why people around the world are going hungry and even more social issues that this population is facing. In order to reduce world hunger human service workers must find ways to spread awareness and help those in need by the use of macro practice interventions. Hunger is not only a problem in the United States; it is a problem around the globe.
Nature of the Population
World Hunger is becoming a larger problem, especially in the United States. The economy failing, the rise in food prices, and the fact that there are no jobs in the United States have created the problems of people in need of food stamps, food banks, and soup kitchens. In other parts of the world poverty is the biggest creator of hunger. Drought, over fishing, war, famine, and poor crops are some reasons why other cultures are struggling with poverty and lack of food as well. Economics is a problem that causes poverty and it is a never ending cycle. If human service workers cannot teach people how to bring themselves out of poverty then there will always be a dependency on help for food.
More than nine million people around the world die each year because of malnutrition and hunger, five million of these people are children (Shah, 2010). In the United Kingdom, Europe, and the United States there is somewhere around an average of 15 to 40 percent waste of food not used or just thrown away. In Africa the food in the crops goes bad before they can get a chance to eat it, the crops end up drying out, insect infestation and just lack of technology. With all the waste that other countries have with food they don??™t just throw away food. There is the fuel to ship it; there were the pesticides used and the labor paid to bring in those crops. There are several workers, truck drivers, businessmen and corporations involved in the production, packaging and shipping of the food people eat and throw away.
World hunger will continue as long as we continue to fail to fix poverty as poverty is the main reason for hunger. Many of the social issues that confront many of these people with poverty is the lack of jobs, the lack of land to grow food, exporting to other places and keeping it in the United States where it is needed. Also the poor and homeless face the fact that many of them are uneducated and cannot get a job without the education most employers require. Some of the people in need of food have religious problems and persecution that makes it more difficult to have jobs and food in other parts of the world. Also companies and other countries are buying up land in the poorer countries but this does not solve the famine problem because now the poorer countries have no land to grow food on and the money they make from the land does not feed them very long. With all of the difficulties facing these countries and communities of the states poverty is not likely to go away any time soon and as long as there is poverty there will remain hunger and famine. The saying give them a fish feed them for a meal teach them to fish feed them for a life time is very true in the war against hunger and just giving poor people food is not going to solve the problem.
Social Issues
Some social issues that affect world hunger are aid and funding not being used to its full potential and lack of support from rich communities. In 2004 the United States joined with other nations to strengthen international voluntary guidelines on the right-to-food (Marchione & Messer, 2010). These guidelines want nations who give food aid to take into consideration the local diet traditions and cultures, community traditions, not establishing a dependency for the food aid and use the countries markets to meet the needs in countries liable to famine. Not all United States government food aid programmers follow these guidelines because they don??™t view them as laws that need to be followed with the right-to-food principles. ???The security concerns of U.S. foreign policy and the political-economic interests of U.S. stakeholders deflect the program from a human rights approach that would more sustainably and effectively reduce world hunger and meet the food needs of hungry people??? (Marchione & Messer, 2010).
The partial compliance to the right-to-food guidelines shows how starving communities can receive less or non-efficient aid. It??™s possible that food aid programmers have different social and economic agendas that determine where their money and resources will go.
There are also other cultural and religious issues that contribute to hunger in certain nations. Some oppress their women by not letting them attend school and become contributing citizens of the community. If a country is not letting 50% of its population go to school, vote and help build society then it appears they will never change their situation. Some nations can afford to oppress half of their society because they have rich natural resources like oil to compensate.
People are aware of the world hunger dilemma along with other issues in the world that has millions of unfortunate people suffering and because of issues like poverty, natural disasters, lack of education and unemployment that affect people daily, it will be hard to overcome hunger in the world. According to Martin (2007), the world is getting smaller on a global outlook due to growing simplicity in communication, international connectedness and mutual trade. There are informative websites on world hunger that make the world pay attention.

Macro Practice Interventions
I think there are several effective ways to end or at least reduce world hunger on a macro level. What is needed is every country that has the resources, put a percentage of funds to teaching poverty stricken communities to better their situation. There is also need for regulation on political and social agendas for donating countries trying to take advantage of poor countries by exploiting their situation to make money instead of helping them. These communities should be able to thrive after they learn the necessary job skills to produce and sustain their much needed resources for living healthy. Another supportive idea is to create a lasting media buzz on world hunger. There is the Pandora application on cell phones that air commercials for breast cancer, life insurance, and bubble gum. So why not have more commercials about world hunger on this cell phone application Commercials like the one for breast cancer let you know you can donate funds through your cell phone or computer. To donate from your cell phone, you text a word to the number provided on the commercial and a set amount of money will be charged on your cell phone bill. At some supermarkets and drugstores the clerk will ask each customer if they want to donate one dollar to different social causes like cancer research, humane society, or adoption services. Some customers are willing to pay a dollar because they are already ready to pay for groceries. Society will view ending world hunger the same as buying ring tones or downloading applications for every day usage. If society wants to raise money for hunger awareness, there needs to be suitable ways for people to donate. Advertising and informing people thru the internet and cell phones is a great way to garner attention to world hunger on a macro level.

Conclusion
Hunger and malnutrition has affected many people from around the world for many different reasons such as lack of money, rise in prices of food, lack of food resources, and economic hardships. Approximately one in seven people in the world are hungry and suffering from malnutrition (Hunger Notes, 2011). There are social issues that contribute to world hunger that can be changed by society, but until then hunger and malnutrition will continue to be a huge issue facing people around the world. By educating people worldwide of the problem of world hunger and using macro practice interventions human service workers are making people more aware of the problems that need to be addressed and how they can be addressed. Human service workers need to make information more accessible about world hunger in ways that people may listen. Uses of new technologies are a good way for human services workers to spread a message. Human service workers have the power to help.

Child Abduction

I selected this social problem because of the deep passion and addiction i have for crime television. One day I realized how many child abductions and child predators are really out there, and how many lives are taken and destroyed because of it. When it comes to the statistics on child abductions and child predators the facts are very disturbing. In a study 403 attempted kidnappings by a stranger or a slight acquaintance were reported by the police or news media in 45 states from February 2005 to July 2006.
“About one child is slain per 10,000 missing child reports.(1990 U.S. Justice Dept.) In 80% of abductions by strangers, the first contact occurs within a quarter mile of the childs home. In many cases, the abduction does, too.? (1990 U.S. Justice Dept.) Most strangers grab their victims on the street or try to lure them into their vehicles. (1990 U.S. Justice Dept.) About 74% of the victims of non family child abduction are girls.? (1990 U.S. Justice Dept.) In 1988 there were as many as 114,600 attempted abductions of children by non-family members, 4,600 abductions by non-family members reported to police, and 300 abductions by non-family members where the children were gone for long periods of time or were murdered. There were as many as 354,000 children abducted by family members, 450,700 children who ran away, 127,100 children who were thrown away, and 438,200 children who were lost, injured or otherwise missing. (1990 U.S. Justice Dept.) In a recent study of parents worries by pediatricians at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, nearly 3/4 of parents said they feared their children might be abducted. 1/3 of parents said this was a frequent worry-a degree of fear greater than that held for any other concern, including car accidents, sports injuries, or drug addiction. (Redbook, February 1998) More than 1/5 of the children reported to the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children in non family abductions are found dead.? (Smithsonian, Oct. 95.)”
The functionalist Perspective would view this social problem as persons who instead of engaging and contributing to the overall stability of society instead choose to cause dysfunctions. Dysfunctions are the undesirable consequences of an activity or social process that inhibit a societys ability to adapt or adjust. When it comes to child abductors and sexual predators instead of them following the norms in society they choose to go against them which causes a major dysfunction. Their values which are collective ideas about what is right or wrong, good or bad, and desirable or undesirable in a specific society are very much negative. Even though their aware of what the norms of a society are they dont care to break them or keep them stable in any way.
The conflict perspective would view this social problem as persons who might have had bad things happen in their past and the things they do is out of anger and trying to some how get pleasure out of something that they know will cause others pain. Certain groups of people are privileged while others are disadvantaged through the unjust use of political, economic or social power. Also many sexual predators are people you would not expect. Many have regular jobs and live normal lives and use that to their advantage by thinking their less likely to be caught due to the way they live and how their social power for example helps them. If your a sunday school teacher who hosts fundraisers and is always donating to many organizations in the area , you would not be suspected or looked at right away compared to someone else who did not do wonderful things in the community.
The symbolic interactionist perspective would view this social problem as persons who acted due to what others might have labeled them. For example John grew up and never really fit in anywhere, not even in his own family and one day his cousins saw him hit a squirrel with a sling shot out in the back of their barn and began to say he got thrills out of killing animals, which in all reality was not the case. Now just because they saw him kill the squirrel they begin to give him nicknames like “sicko” “freak” “weirdo” and things in that nature and very soon he ended up living up to that name just because thats what people labeled him as. Symbolic interactionist perspective call it self-fulfilling prophecy, an unsubstantiated belief or prediction results in behavior that makes the original false conception come true.
For solutions to child abductions and sexual predators the functionalist perspective would try to find away for everyone to help keep the chances of this happening as low as possible by everyones help in the society. Such as law enforcement, and just regular people in society, owners of business and many other institutions such as schools. The Amber Alert is a perfect example of something that the functionalist perspective represent. Amber Alert is a child abduction bulletin in the U.S and Canada used when there is suspected abduction of a child, which was named after nine year old Amber Hagerman, who was abducted and murdered in Arlington, Texas in 1996. They also believe to reduce child abduction, other things in society should be strengthened so they can regenerate shared values and morality.
From a Conflict Perspective view they would think that this social problem is unlikely to get rid of and that it would have to be examined on a micro-level, where you can really see how people who choose to abduct children live their lives.
From a Symbolic Interactionist Perspective view they believe by changing the societal values that encourage the behavior of child abductors would lessing the social problem, also change must occur at the micro-level. Also agents of socialization have to transmit different attitudes towards child abduction.
I would use micro analysis to investigate this social problem over macro because in this situation I think we need to figure out what causes people to do this. Which would involve getting a closer look at individuals and their lives and what they have been through in their past. Even in the 1960s child abduction was still as prevalent as it is now.
If I was a sociologist who was given a grant to investigate this social problem I would go about researching Child Abduction by having interviews with all the child abductors who have been caught to try to understand why they do what they do and try to see if their reasoning is similar, which in the long run could help find was to decrease it or be aware of it as much as possibile. I would also interview all the families of the abducted child and find out things such as : where their child was abducted, had they been taught repeatedly never to go with strangers, how old they were when they were abducted, were they left alone by themselves or did they wander off, which could determine information to try to understand the circumstances. For example some children are abducted at parks, when the parent looks away for five seconds and their gone, or some are in shopping centers and the child is lured by the child predator.
I would utilize the survey method the most, because in this situation the horrible act has already been committed and a group of set questions that would go out to all the families whos child was abducted can be answered and compared easily. Also some families might still be in deep pain over their childs abduction and might not want to be interviewed. I would also use the secondary analysis of existing data which could be very helpful as far as comparing past abductions from many years ago which you can then compare to current information, which I believe would make a better understanding of all my findings. Then field research would be my third choice, to try to interview the children who have been abducted and survived which would give probably the best information since they are the ones who experienced it first hand.
Solutions I would propose be implemented in order to resolve this social problem would be to have more child abduction bulletins, so as soon as an abduction takes place everyone is alert and looking for the child because the first 24 hours is very crucial. I would also make it mandatory for all institutions to have surveillance on at all times throughout their institution. There is only but so much we can do to stop child abductors from doing what they do but we can try our hardest to work together and decrease this social problem as much as we can.

Works Cited

Yello Dyno, Inc. ??? “Yello Dyno” and the Yello Dyno character are federally registered trademarks of Yello Dyno, Inc. SCopyright 1994-2007

Global Marketing

Global Market
April 10, 2012
Introduction
My family tries to shop locally for as much as we can for the food that we eat. My husband and son our hunters and fishermen and they do provide some food for the family. There are a lot of local farmers that we can buy our products from, this is a big Amish area and that helps with the food purchases. The word made in America is starting to become obsolete. The foreign cars sold here are cheaper than the American made models. Compile that with high gas prices that we have to buy from other countries the American shopping idea is not a hot commodity. If our own government supported American made products we as a country may not be in the situations we are in.
Meals
Bacon, Eggs and toast:
Eggs- I purchase them from a local Amish farm that is about five miles from my home. The gas I buy to drive my car is from Kwik Fill they supply their pumps with made in America fuel. The car I drive is suppose to be made in America but over half of the parts on my Dodge Grand caravan have been imported to this country from other countries. Hence the made in America logo that dodge uses. (Dodge.com)
Toast- I love Bimbo?® bread it is made in Horsham, PA. The company imports its flour, and other baking supplies from various different companies through the US. When I called them they would not tell me specifically where they purchase their products just that they try to purchase in America all their supplies (Bimbobakeries.com).
Bacon- I buy Jamestown bacon it is made in Jamestown NC. There is an Amish farm in my area that supplies pigs to them to make the bacon. At least I can still say I am trying to buy locally
This dish cost $6.00 but I get a dozen servings
I would buy cereal and have that for breakfast but the cheapest box of cereal is over $4.00. So even though I am not a fan of eggs they are cheaper for my family.
The dishes and pans I use to make all my meals are imported from China I bought them years ago from the Made in America Wal-Mart. 70% of their products are imported (walmart.com) this is what we all call made in America
Tuna and rice with Peas:
This is one of the meals my son and husband love and the best part is it takes no time to make.
Peas- out of a can Great Value?® purchased at Wal-Mart. The same van listed above took me to Wal-Mart as well.
Rice- Great Value?® brand is the cheapest in the area I would rather pay $1.00 for a box of rice than $4.00 for Minute Rice?® brand. The prices are just crazy in this town for products.
Tuna- Great Value?® of course in oil not water (tastes better).
Mushroom Soup- Great Value?® as before.
This dish only costs $2.58 plus a gallon of gas that is for three people.
There is a lot issues in my town with the Wal-Mart because they have driven all the other stores out of town. The ones that are still here can not compete with the prices that Wal- Mart have.
Global Market
The benefit to a global market is that it does increase variety. There is always more than one choice for a certain item. The bad side is you can not find a made in America product in your own country. The worse thing is that even if it is made in America the parts going in to are imported from another country. This computer that I use to write my paper is made in China. The phone I use to stay in contact with that world in made in China the TV I watch is also imported the only thing good about that is the plastic shell that hold the TV is actually made in America. The competition among manufactures is so crazy because in my opinion they would cut the throat of a friend to get the deal on that item.
Closing
This assignment really made me think about the things I buy. I read that story of the 100 mile diet and I just don??™t think that economically that I could stay strictly in a 100 mile diet. There are so many things that are cheaper from foreign markets then from our own. I support buy American but with CEO??™s making six of seven figures and the labor workers making just above minimum wage how can I justify lining the pockets of the wealthy just to see more people in the welfare line. On the other hand how can I justify buying a product that was made in America but in a sweat shop that hired illegal??™s to work for pennies. This makes me really think about what I buy and from whom.

Reference:
http://answers.yahoo.com/question/indexqid=20080127203408AAJpKHD
Bimbo.com
Walmart.com
Dodge.com

Chilcare Knowledge

Unit 337 – Knowledge

K3C542 ??“ Attention deficits or communication difficulties can have a number of effects on a child??™s behaviour. Children with the aforementioned problems may find it harder to manage their behaviour which may results in behaviour linked to frustration such as temper tantrums and aggressive acts. You should try and predict a child??™s needs or consider using a picture or sign system such as makaton to help communicate better if the child has such difficulties or speak to a professional.
Specifically a child with an attention deficit will have difficulty concentrating due to low arousal levels and may show restless or erratic behaviour. Although this behaviour can be seen to be disruptive, especially during activities that involve prolonged sitting, you should try and keep that child??™s interest. Keeping to strong routines and providing plenty of sensory activities as well as giving frequent feedback to the child (stickers etc) can help overcome these problems. Open ended activities and using visual cues during activities can also help the child maintain concentration. An attention disorder can affect a child??™s learning and this should help overcome this problem as far as possible. In my setting we have a child with an attention disorder and he often benefits from one on one attention although this can??™t always be done.
K3D691 ??“ Today a child centred approach to managing behaviour and encouraging positive behaviour should be used. Old and dated approaches often seen a child??™s behaviour as a problem and not consider why the child is exhibiting this type of behaviour. A child centred approach concentrates on the needs of a child and reasons for their behaviour. A child centred approach means focussing on the underlying issues contributing towards a child??™s behaviour. For example a child who is spoiling an activity for others may be doing it because he/ she does not feel accepted by others. A firm but respectful approach should be used in order to promote positive behaviour.
Respect is also an important factor in promoting positive behaviour. Children need to learn how to respect others and how their actions and behaviour can affect others. They also need to respect the environment around them. You should focus on respect from an early age and encourage children to take turns and to respect each other as well as the environment around them.
When dealing with behaviour you should consider how your strategies may affect the child. If you remove the child from the activity for bad behaviour you may be excluding the child from the opportunities that the activity provides. Where at all possible you should include the child in the full activity thus providing inclusive practice.
There is also a link between the language skills of a child and their behaviour. A child with good language skills can communicate their needs better and are able to organise their thoughts and emotions better. However a child with poor language skills will often find it frustrating trying to communicate, and exhibit aggressive behaviours because of this. You should try and work on ways to communicate with the child in order to overcome this.
There are many theories of how children learn behaviour and these can be used in order to encourage positive behaviour.
The social learning theory developed by Bandura suggests that children learn their behaviour from imitating others, including you as a person that often spends a lot of time with that child. Social learning theory links closely to role modelling where you act as a role model for the child and they often imitate your behaviour. It is therefore that you exhibit positive behaviour so that the children do not learn bad behaviour from you.
The behaviourist theory from Pavlov suggests that behaviour is repeated if it is rewarded in some way. Famously Pavlov??™s experiment involved ringing a bell just before feeding some dogs. He did this repetitively and eventually rang the bell and didn??™t give the dogs any food; however they still salivated as if the food was coming. The behaviourist theory forms the basis of all behaviour strategies, often through using positive reinforcement to encourage good behaviour. The theory suggests that behaviour that is rewarded in some way will be repeated, whereas behaviour that is punished or not rewarded will not be repeated. Interestingly behaviour is more likely to be repeated if it is rewarded inconsistently. However sometimes behaviour from the adult that provides attention for the child will be seen by the child as positive even if the adult meant it to be disapproving. This can often result in the behaviour being repeated.
K3D692 – Different behaviours can be dealt with according to the situation as long as consistency and fairness is taken into consideration. My settings behaviour policy provides guidelines to deal with behaviour and this is consistent with other methods for dealing with behaviour such as:
??? Focusing on positive behaviour and acknowledging it appropriately
??? Provide adult attention so that a child will not try and get attention through negative behaviour.
??? Try and be aware of signs of boredom or frustration from children.
??? Make sure children are given an idea of how they should behave through clear statements e.g. please walk.
??? Involve older children in making rules and setting boundaries
??? Think of why the children are behaving in that manner (boredom etc)
??? Give reasons for things that are not allowed
The behaviour policy should be agreed by all and fit in with the care standards of the home country in which we work. It is necessary to review the policy regularly and assess its effectiveness. A good policy will fit in with the aims of the setting and ensure consistency in dealing with behaviour and enable the child to realise what is acceptable and unacceptable behaviour.
K3D693 ??“ It is important to agree behaviour management programmes with children, families and colleagues. People who deal with the children such as colleagues and families need to understand the way in which positive behaviour is encouraged and the aims of the setting. This could be brought to the family??™s attention during admission to the nursery or during a meeting with the family. If a family understands this then they will be more able to understand your actions in relation to dealing with behaviour.
Colleagues need to agree behaviour management programmes and understand them in order that they can also deal with the child??™s behaviour consistently. It is also beneficial to discuss behaviour strategies with families where a child is showing signs of challenging behaviour so the strategy can be used at home as well as in the setting.
Children can also be involved in behaviour strategies. Negotiating a contract for behaviour helps the children feel that you respect their views and will listen to them but you are ultimately in control. Negotiating with children is obviously different depending on their age (due to development of language and cognitive skills) but older children can discuss their feelings with you.
K3D694 ??“ Although negotiation or positive reinforcement is enough for a child to show positive behaviour, this is not the case for all children. Some children will need structured support in order for them to show positive behaviour. This may come in the form of a programme to encourage positive behaviour. The child??™s behaviour may be due to a learning difficulty or a desire to explore their boundaries. A clearly defined, structured approach will often be beneficial to these children, as they will know exactly what is expected of them.
Before developing a behaviour management programme you need to try and understand the reasons for the child??™s behaviour. The child??™s behaviour will usually be down to an underlying issue. You need to gain information on the child to understand how to deal with the behaviour and the reasons for it. It may be necessary to talk to the parents in order to find out about the things in a child??™s life that may be affecting his/her behaviour. Through pooling this information you will be able to develop a strategy on dealing with the behaviour. It may also be beneficial to simply observe the child for a period of time to try and understand the reasons for his/her behaviour.
K3D695 ??“ Once a behaviour management plan has been implemented it is essential that you monitor it. This should be done by all including other colleagues and family members. It is often too easy to recognise bad behaviour rather than positive behaviour and therefore being observant is important. Once technique that may be useful in monitoring the effectiveness of a programme is the event (or frequency sample) method. This involves an adult that is not involved in the activity observing a child and using a worksheet to record the activities and behaviours of the child. This sheet may show the time, what the child is doing (who they are playing with), and when they are exhibiting both positive and negative behaviour. It may also include a comments section to write extra notes in that may be useful.
K3D696 ??“ When implementing the behaviour programme it is important that you are patient and wait for the plan to work. A child may have some good sessions but then have a bad one and this is completely normal. One reason for this is that the child may see themselves as naughty and it may take time for the child??™s self concept to change. No changes to the behaviour programme should be made without being patient with the original plan for a prolonged period.
However the practicality of some programmes or difficulty implementing the programme may mean that a plan needs to be changed. It may also be the case that a child is not responding to the reward given or the plan is simply not working. In this case the programme should be reviewed in order to ensure that any gains from the original programme are not lost.
K3D697 ??“ When dealing with behaviour it is important that you take a firm but respectful approach. This means looking for strategies to prevent unwanted behaviour rather than waiting for it to happen. Unwanted behaviour will always occur in some shape or form and you should be calm and controlled when dealing with it. Intervening in situations can come in several shapes and forms including:
??? Facial expression/ eye contact ??“ When a child is showing unwanted behaviour making eye contact and giving a look of disapproval will often make them stop. When the child then shows good behaviour immediate praise should then be given.
??? A determined ???No??? ??“ Often saying no firmly to a child will stop them from performing unwanted behaviour. However it is important that when you say no that you mean it and do not go back on your decision.
??? Explaining consequences of actions ??“ Explaining the consequences of a child??™s actions or behaviour can also be effective. For example in my setting I asked a child to stop splashing other children in the water tray, explaining to her that it will get their clothes and hair wet. I then said that I would remove her from the water activity if she carried on doing it. You should also explain what you will do if they carry on showing unwanted behaviour as previously mentioned in my example (removing the child from the activity).
??? Removal of equipment ??“ This should only be used as a last resort or if you threatened to do so. If you do this then you should give the child something else to do to prevent them from showing further unwanted behaviour.
??? Time out ??“ Time out should only be used with older children as younger children do not have the skills to reflect and calm down. It should not be a punishment and instead be a way of allowing the child to calm down and reflect on what they have done. Long periods of time out should not be used as this could be seen as exclusion.
K3D698 ??“ When working with children it is important that you communicate with them as appropriate for their stage of development. A baby communicates differently to a 7 year old. When talking to children or asking them to do something for you then you should be clear in what you are asking them to do and not be ambiguous in the way you word your instructions. You will often ask a child to do something when really they have no or limited choice in the matter. Using humour especially sarcasm is inappropriate too as this could also lead to some ambiguous directions or cause confusion. Another point to note is to ensure that you have the full attention of the child before relaying instructions as a child will often be immersed in an activity. With regards to timing of instructions children will forget something you said 20 minutes ago and this is worth taking into consideration.
This closely links in with behaviour and you should be aware that children will show different behaviours according to their age and stage of development. You should therefore be realistic in your expectations of children??™s behaviour. This will help in defining boundaries with children. A child with poor language skills will not be able to communicate their needs with you very well and therefore will be more likely to exhibit aggressive or unwanted behaviour out of frustration. Very young children will not yet of set clear boundaries and be aware of what is appropriate and inappropriate behaviour. As they become older they will start to realise these boundaries and their behaviour will change accordingly. There are also other factors that affect behaviour such as developmental issues like speech impediments etc.
K3D699 ??“ Behaviour is closely linked to a child??™s self esteem and relationships with others. From a young age children develop a picture of themselves known as a self concept and this can have an effect on their self esteem. A child who??™s self concept shows a picture that they are bad and are incapable of being good will often exhibit unwanted behaviour. You should try and discourage a self concept such as this being formed through not making a child feel bad about themselves on a regular basis. A child??™s self concept is closely linked to their self esteem. A child will often learn how to annoy adults and children alike as they get older and develop relationships with others.
Developing a child??™s self esteem and helping them believe in themselves will often result in them showing appropriate behaviour. A happy, confident child will almost certainly exhibit good behaviour. A child that has low self esteem should be encouraged to believe in themselves and develop their self esteem in order that they will exhibit more appropriate behaviour.
With regards to relationships children will often behave differently depending on who they are with. When children are with people that they know children will often behave well as they are aware of the boundaries. When children show inappropriate behaviour it is often just to get attention from an adult. Building relationships with these children is important and may be the key to getting them to exhibit more appropriate behaviour. Children should be treated as individuals and you should work on and praise their strong points.
K3D700 ??“ There are many possible reasons for a child exhibiting challenging behaviour. As previously discussed in other questions a special need or just attention seeking or low self esteem may be the cause. However there may be other reasons as to why a child is exhibiting challenging behaviour. There may be specific background difficulties such as a family unit recently split up or an ongoing family feud. It may simply be that a child is feeling unwell or even that they are moving house and may feel unsettled. It is important that you try and look at the individual needs of the child and the reasons for why they are exhibiting this behaviour and act accordingly. In summary anything that is happening in a child??™s life may affect the way in which they behave. A break in a routine or something that is not considered the norm can often affect a child??™s behaviour.
K3D701 ??“ It is important that an adult has a realistic expectation of a child in the things that they do and the way in which they behave. Expectations that are too high may put unwanted pressure on a child and may lead to unwanted behaviour due to low self esteem. Low expectations from an adult will lead to poor social development of a child. Children should be encouraged to develop their skills in all areas and the balance between high and low expectations should be met in order to give the child high self esteem and to be able to learn new skills.

Global Marketing and Trades

Global Marketing and Trade

Demetrius Dority

Introduction to Business Enterprise 1008

MAN1030

Dr. Betty Works
8/24/2010
.

Global Marketing and Trade

Bill Nickels Jim Mc Hugh

Susan Mc Hugh

Bill Nickels University of Maryland Park

Jim Mc Hugh Linwood University

Susan Mc Hugh University of Missouri

Reference

(2010-1986) Bill Nickels, Jim Mc Hugh, Susan McHugh pg.75

Sociocultural, Economic financial, Legal, and Environmental forces are all challenges to Global Trade.

(2010-1986) Bill Nickels, Jim Mc Hugh, Susan Mc Hugh pg.66

The key strategies include licensing, exporting, franchising, contract manufacturing and international joint ventures.

Global Marketing and Trades
Different strategies are used to reach the global markets. The forces are sociocultral economic,

financial, legal, regulatory, and physical and environmental forces. Many advantages

and disadvantages of outsourcing. Many strategies are used in reaching global markets. The

main strategies are licensing,

exporting, franchising, contract manufacturing, foreign subsidiaries and foreign direct

investment. In licensing the right to manufacture and use a company??™s trademark come into play

When selling products to another company, this is known as exporting. Franchising sells the

right to distribute a licensed idea, business name or product in a particular territory. Adapting to

a countries preferences is also key in franchising. When a company produces private-label goods

and another company attaches it??™s own brand name to it, this is known as contract

manufacturing. Joint ventures allow companies to join in and undertake large projects. With

strategic alliances, companies build competitive market advantages. For a company to maintain

complete control over the technology and expertise they possess, subsidiaries are especially key

when buying permanent property or businesses in foreign nations, known as foreign direct

investment. Beliefs and differences in sociocultural forces, economic and financial forces, legal

and regulatory forces, and physical and environmental forces affect the amount of commitment,

control, risk and profit potential associated with global markets. Loss of company product

secrets and promised royalties can also affect global markets and trade. When a company

contracts with another company to perform essential functions such as

production or accounting this is known as outsourcing. Less complicated jobs can be outsourced

globally. By doing this companies can focus on areas in which they can excel and grow.

Outsourced work allows companies to create efficiencies that in return allow them to hire more

workers. Consumers benefit from lower prices generated by effective use of global resources and

developing nations grow, adding to economic growth. The down side to Offshore outsourcing is

that jobs are permanently lost and wages fall due to low-cost offshore competition. It also

reduces product quality and can cause damage to a company??™s reputation. Communication

among company members, with suppliers, and customers become difficult.

Conclusion

Global trades involve??™s a few key strategies such as licensing, franchising , and outsourcing to

name a few. Subsidiaries benefits in securing company secrets , revenue, reputation . Contract

manufacturing requires little start-up cost and boost economical growth.

Chilaxin

LEARNING TEAM CHARTER ??“ TEAM ???A???

|Course Title |Applied Business Research and Statistics ??“ QNT/561 |
| |
| | | | | | | |

Team Members/Contact Information

|Name | |Phone | |Time zone and | |Email |
| | | | |Availability During the Week | | |
| | | | | | | |
|Lenora Murphy | |268-728-7398 | |EST (Mon-Fri 7-11pm, flexible on weekends) | |[email protected] |
|Bridgett Robinson | |501-548-1990 | |CST (Mon-Fri after 3 p.m., anytime on weekends) | |[email protected] |
|Angela Plummer-Harper | |706-283-2936 | |EST (Mon-Fri) 7-9:30pm, Weekends flexible 7am-10pm | |[email protected] |
|Tim Drury | |808-277-0440 | |HST (M-F 9 am-11 pm, weekends open) | |[email protected] |
| | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | |

Team Ground Rules and Guidelines
What are the general expectations for all members of the team

Bridgett- The general expectations for all members of the team is to work as a team and communicate effectively to get each assignment done. Also, for every member to do their part in a timely manner.
Angela ??“ Decide how the team is to progress over the next few weeks by communication, timeliness, and announcing expectations of each team member.
Tim- Be professional and timely. When deadlines are set, have work finished in appropriate time. If you can communicate immediately. Submit work through plagiarism, WP etc before submitting to team.
Lenora ??“ Effective communication, and early indication of challenges so that they may be overcome collectively.

Expectations for Time Management and Involvement

(Participation, communication with the team, accessibility, etc.)
Bridgett- The expectations for time management and involvement is for everyone to participate equally and to communicate will everyone effectively especially if there is an issue with providing their part of the assignment.
Angela ??“ Everyone should participate equally. If a problem arises ask for assistance. Try to resolve issues team issues before asking for facilitator assistance. Communicate problems when help is needed with an assignment.
Tim- Participate at a masters level, and be timely. Every team member should attempt to resolve issues in the week that the issue is brought forward. Every team member should be involved in each assignment.
Ensuring Fair and Even Contribution and Collaboration
What strategy will you use to ensure that all team members are contributing and collaborating appropriately Describe the communication strategy you will use if a team member is not contributing and collaborating effectively. How will the team manage conflicts between team members
Bridgett-The strategy to ensure that all team members are contribution and collaborating appropriately by assigning or selecting everyone a tasks to do during the assignment that way everyone will know what they are supposed to do for that assignment. If there are any conflicts within the team they will be addressed with the person/s to come to a solution. Still if the problem is not solved it will be taken up with the instructor to come to some common ground.
Angela ??“ Team members should be allowed to contribute their strengths but allow for challenges. The team should resolve conflicts amongst the team members by seeking answers from the team. Make a decision and follow the plan that came to the decision. Listen effectively, communicate effectively, respect all decisions. We do not have to agree with everything but respect the final decision.
Tim- Everyone should contribute at a masters level.
Lenora ??“ Assigning tasks to each team member.
Special Considerations
What do you, as a team, agree will make this team experience different from past team experiences
Collaboration with respect to all members and classmates along with our facilitator makes a great team experience.
Team A will continuously communicate prior to submitting assignments in order to identify strengths of team members which may be used to the team??™s advantage, as well as identifying weaknesses that may be improved for creating synergies beneficial to all.