Global Warming

Introduction

Global Warming is when the temperature rises and the earth heats up. It happens when green house gases, i.e. Carbon dioxide, water vapour, Nitrous Oxide and Methane, catch heat and light from the sun in the earth environment, which increases the temperature. The increase in temperatures causes a lot of destruction especially to living things, that is, animal, human beings and plants. This paper is going to deal with causes of Global warming, the effects of Global Warming, and what can be done to stop Global Warming or as well to reduce its effects.

What causes Global Warming

Global Warming is caused by many stuff and here are some of the causes of Global Warming. One thing that causes global warming is electrical toxic waste. Electricity causes toxic waste in many ways, some worse than others. In most cases, fossil fuels are burned to produce electricity. Fossil fuels are made of dead plants and animals. Some examples of fossil fuels are oil and petroleum. Many pollutants are sent into the air when fossil fuels are burned. Some of these chemicals are called greenhouse gasses. When we use these sources of energy, for example Petroleum which is used in transportation, more Green house gases are sent into the air, and with too many greenhouse gasses in the air, the earth??™s atmosphere will entrap too much heat and the earth will get too hot. As a consequence people, animals, and plants would die because the heat would be too strong.

Another thing that causes Global Warming is when Garbage are being burnt This sends an huge amount of greenhouse gasses into the air and makes global warming worse.

Cutting down of trees also causes Global Warming. Trees and other plants collect carbon dioxide (CO2), which is a greenhouse gas. Carbon dioxide is the air that our body lets out when we breathe. With fewer trees, it is harder for people to breathe because there is more CO2 in the air, and we don??™t breathe CO2, we breathe oxygen. Plants collect the CO2 that we breathe out, and they give back oxygen that we breathe in. With fewer trees and other plants, such as algae, there is less air for us, and more greenhouse gases are sent into the air. This means that it is very important to protect our trees to stop the greenhouse effect.

Conclusion
In conclusion, Global Warming has a lot of effects to living things, as discussed above it is caused by the rise of temperatures due to a lot of Green house gases in the air which traps a lot of heat. Reduction of Green house gases in the air can greatly reduce Global Warming thus minimizing its effects.
?

Child Development Essay

Child Development Project

The purpose of this document is to look at 6 different areas of a child??™s development from the age range 0 to 16 years. The six areas are classified as follows:

??? Physical
??? Intellectual
??? Communication and Language
??? Social
??? Emotional
??? Behavioral

Under each of these 6 areas the age range of children will be split into 4 sections:

??? 0 to 3 years
??? 4 to 7 years
??? 8 to 12 years
??? 13 to 16 years

Each age range will be examined under that area of development.

1. Physical Development

The first thing that springs to most parents??™ minds when they hear the phrase ???physical growth??? used in the context of child development is height. Height or how tall a child grows to be, can easily be measured and compared and whilst this makes it something of an easy indicator of growth, it is by no means the only facet of physical growth in children. In addition to height, the development of gross motor skills, fine motor skills and coordination are all important indicators of physical growth. Without these developments children remain unable to explore and understand the outside world

1.1 From 0 to 3

1. Newborn babies

In the first year of their lives, babies??™ physical development is rapid. Newborn babies are born with a range of refluxes to help them survive. This includes:

Rooting reflex Moving mouth if face is touched to search for food
Startle reflux If a sudden sound is heard their arms and legs suddenly move together as if catching something
Grasp reflux When something is placed in the babies hand the babies fingers tighten around it automatically
Crawling reflex When placed on the front the baby tucks their knees underneath

From 6 weeks the baby develops and becomes more alert. Their arm and leg movements are now jerky, they follow objects and faces at close range, and they are soothed by their carer??™s voice.

2. From 3 to 12 months

From 3 months the baby develops even more and can:
??? Kick their legs and move their arms.
??? Smile and make coo noises
??? Find hands and bring them to their mouth
??? Looks and plays with fingers
??? Looks around and is alert
??? When lying on front can lift head and turn head
??? Can briefly hold a rattle

From 6 months :
??? Smiling and laughing
??? Grasps objects
??? Beginning to roll over
??? Pull up legs with hands when lying on back ??“ may suck toes
??? Sit up with support and maybe for some babies sit up without support for short periods
??? Follow adult movements
??? When lying on their front push up head, neck and chest of floor

From 9 months :
??? Sit up without support
??? Maybe crawling or shuffling on bottom
??? Reaching for toys when sitting
??? Bang objects together
??? Pick up objects using fingers and thumb
??? Babbles and may understand bye-bye , no and yes

From 12 months :
??? Most babies are mobile ??“ crawling, rolling or bottom shuffling
??? May stand alone for few seconds
??? Walking by holding onto furniture
??? Understands name and simple instructions
??? Points to objects using index finger
??? Drinks from cup, eats using fingers and maybe spoon

1.1.3 From 1 to 3

From the age of 1 to 3 children??™s physical skills continue to develop. The body has developed further and bones have started to harden and form. The brain is also growing and developing and is co-ordinating messages between different parts of the body. Hand-eye co-ordination improves as does gross and fine motor skills.

|Age |Fine manipulative skills |Gross manipulative skills |
|1 year |Picks up and holds toys |Mobile ??“ walking between 12 and 15 months |
| |Uses thumb and forefinger to pick up objects |Seats self in small chair |
| |Points to objects |Rolls and throws a ball |
| |Holds and drinks from cup with help |Walks down stairs with help |
| |Puts small objects in container |Pushes and pulls toys whilst walking |
| |Builds tower of 2 blocks |Bends down from waist to pick up toys |
| |Tries to turn pages in book | |
| |Turns door knobs and handles | |
| |Pulls off shoes | |
|2 years |Feeds themselves with spoon |Kicks a ball |
| |Puts on shoes |Climbs on furniture |
| |Builds tower of 5/6 blocks |Walks up and down stairs |
| |Puts 5 rings on stick |Puts together and pulls apart snap together toys |
| |Draws circles and dots | |
| |Starts to use preferred hand | |
| |Zips and unzips large zippers | |
|3 years |Puts on and takes off coat |Walks and runs |
| |Washes and dries hands with help |Throws and kicks a ball |
| |Can draw a face with crayon |Pedals and steers a bike |
| |Turns pages in book |Jumps from low step |
| |Uses a spoon well |Walk on tiptoes |

1.2 From 4 to 7
During this period children become more co-ordinated. This is because their brains have developed more and they are able to process information faster. They become quicker at performing everyday tasks eg putting on shoes and coat and are less clumsy and more co-ordinated in their actions.

1. Age 4

From this age children can perform the following gross motor skills
??? Runs and can change direction
??? Hops on one foot
??? Pedal a tricycle and steer it
??? Catch and bounce a ball
??? Aim and throw a ball
??? Walk on a line

And the following fine motor skills:
??? Can button and unbutton own clothing
??? Cut out simple shapes
??? Do a 12 piece jigsaw
??? Draw a person with arms and legs

2. Age 5

From this age children can perform the following gross motor skills
??? Runs quickly avoiding obsticles
??? Can use large play items eg swings, slides, climbing frames
??? Plays throw and catch with another person
??? Hits ball with bat or stick
??? Skips with rope

3. Age 6 – 7

From this age children can perform the following gross motor skills
??? Ride a bike without stabilisers
??? Chasing and dodging others
??? Hop, skip and jump confidently
??? Kick a ball in a certain direction
??? Balance on a beam or wall
From this age children can perform the following fine motor skills
??? Cut out shapes accurately
??? Detailed drawings
??? Legible handwriting, evenly spaced and joined
??? Ties / unties laces
??? Able to sew simple stitches

2. From 8 to 12

During this period children continue to become more physical. Their interests begin to play a big part in their development, so for example someone who enjoys gymnastics will show more skill in that area. As will someone who enjoys football or running.

Children??™s fine motor skills are also becoming well developed. Someone who enjoys drawing or art are able to use precise movements.

From around 10 years of age, girls bodies will start the process of puberty, whereas in boys this starts later at around 13 or 14. Puberty usually begins with a growth spurt with hands and feet growing first to reach adult size followed by arms legs and then trunk. The body also becomes stronger as bones have hardened and there is an increase in muscle strength and hand grip. In girls puberty ends around 15 whereas in boys it is around 16.

3. From 13 to 16

By the age of 14 or 15 most girls have completed the process of puberty and by 16 are having regular periods. Boys will not complete puberty until they are around 16. By the end of puberty most boys will be stronger than girls because of the fat to muscle ratio. This ratio is higher in girls thereby giving boys a higher muscle ratio. Boys are also on average taller than girls too.

The brain also continues to develop during these years and speed, reaction times and co-ordination are a result of brain development. Having a good diet and exercise is very important during these years and boys and girls are physically at their peak during these teenage years.

2. Intellectual Development

The following section details the intellectual or cognitive development of children from 0 -16 years. This is a difficult area to define exactly as children??™s intellectual abilities are strongly shaped by their experiences with the environment. One child can move at a different rate than another. This progression is different and changes over time if the experiences of the child also changes.

Much of modern cognitive developmental theory stems from the work of the Swiss psychologist, Jean Piaget. He observed that children??™s reasoning and understanding capabilities differed depending on their age.

1. From 0 to 3

During Piagets sensorimotor stage (birth to age 2), infants and toddlers learn by doing: looking, hearing, touching, grasping, sucking. The process appears to begin with primitive ???thinking??? that involves coordinating movements of the body with incoming sensory data.

|Age |Months |Probable sequence of tasks |
|0 -1 years | 0 ??“ 2 months |Simple reflexes such as grasping sucking |
| | 2 ??“ 4 months |Opening and closing fingers |
| | 4 ??“ 8 months |Cause and effect eg kicking feet against a mobile in a cot to make it move |
| | 8 ??“ 12 months |Infant reaches behind a screen to obtain a hidden object. |
| | |Look for object that??™s been removed |
| | |Puts an object into a container |

From the age of 1 infants become more

|Age |Probable sequence of tasks |
|1 ??“ 2 years |Remove objects one by one from container |
| |Points to parts of body |
| |Scribbles |
| |Points to named picture eg of mummy/daddy |
|2 ??“ 3 years |Completes a simple 3 piece puzzle |
| |Can point to little and big objects eg which is the big shoe |
| |Copy a circle |
| |Match 3 colours |
| |Stacks beakers in order |
| |Match texture |

2.

Global Warming

The Global Warming Conspiracy July 3, 1983 The U.S. Government, the IPCC, and the oil companies are lying to the world about global warming. They know green house gases has nothing to do with global warming. The oil companies, and the U.S government spend tens of millions of dollar to scientists to spread false propaganda about global warming. They are doing it to prevent a world wide panic, protect the oil companies profit, and prevent world wide economic collapse. Global warming is the apocalypse, and in the future billions of people will perish, if its not reverse in time. You have been warned! The real reason for global warming is the earth??™s orbit around the sun is slowly decaying, the earth elliptical orbit around the sun is shrinking, and the earth is moving closer to the sun. People take the earth??™s magnetic field for granted, because it??™s invisible, and silent, but the earth??™s magnetic field keeps the earth at a safe distance from the sun, and the moon. The high temperature in the earth??™s core (the earth??™s engine) generates earth??™s magnetic, and gravitational fields. The earth??™s fuel system is referred to as crude oil, and natural gas wells. They are actually self pressurizing fuel cells, and crude oil, and natural gas are the earth??™s fuel. The oil company??™s crude oil extraction process compromises the earth??™s fuel system, and shut off fuel to the earth??™s outer core, by releasing pressure out of these oil, and gas wells. Under normal conditions the outer core stays at a constant temperature between 5000 to 7000 degrees celsius, and the pressure in the outer core, lower mantle, and in oil wells stays at tens of thousands of pounds per square inch. The pressure in an oil well forces the oil, and natural gas into the outer core, and is ignited long before it reaches the outer core, and enters the lower mantle, and outer core as flames, heat, and pressure. One of the components of crude oil is oxygen, so combustion in the lower mantle, and outer core is possible. Reference: Speight, James G. (1999) The Chemistry, and technology of Petroleum. Mercel Dekker/ ISBN: 0824702174 The earth??™s core is being fuel starved, and the core is slowly cooling. As the core cools the earth??™s magnetic field will weakens, and the earth will be pulled closer to the sun. The high temperature in the earth??™s core is not sustained by decaying nuclear material, or by a dynamo process. The radiation would escape during volcanic eruptions. No radiation has ever been detected during, or after a volcanic episode. Only crude oil, and natural gas byproducts, such as the great pressures, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide gases, etc. The materials, and gases ejected from volcanoes originate from the lower mantle, and outer core region of this planet. Note past volcanic eruption were much stronger, and violent, than present day eruption. This is due to the core cooling. Reference: Kenneth A. McGee, and Terrence M. Gerlach 1995/ Volcanic Gas: USGS Open files report -95-85, 2p.

The only way to reverse global warming is for the oil companies to re-pressurize the earth??™s fuel systems. One way this can be accomplished is by igniting the methane gas in the fuel system. The ignited gas will expand, and create the pressure need to force the remaining crude oil, and natural gas into the outer core, and it will take many decades to reheat the core to normal temperatures. Crude oil, and methane gas was not created to fuel our industries, or automobiles. It was created to fuel this planet. Crude oil is the life blood of this planet. Global warming has nothing to do with a hole in the ozone, Co2 gases, methane gases, black carbon, the green house effect, sun flares, the sun going nova, and most importantly the earth is in no cycle of warmth. Tens of thousands of scientist believe the green house gas theory is false (TGWPP). This should be a cause for an alarm. Reference: University of Leicester (UK): Vladimir Shaidurov of the Academy of Science (Russia): The Global Warming Petition Project (www.petitionproject.org): Environmental effect of Increase Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide by Dr. A.B. Robinson, Dr. N.E. Robinson, and Dr. W. Soon (2007) J. Am. Phy. Sur. 12, 79-90. Something is going wrong with the earth??™s orbit. The events below are not separate events they are all part of earth decaying orbit. 1. The earth is moving away from the moon. 2. The rotation of the earth is slowing down. 3. The earth is shifting on its axis. 4. Twelve o??™clock noon use to be the hot part of the day, now three o??™clock is the hottest part of the day. 5. The earth is wobbling on it axis. 6. The earth is developing a breach in its magnetic field. 7. Both polar ice caps are being melted, one at a time, during each polar ice cap??™s summer season faster, than the ice can reform in winter, and the oceans are rising. 8. The sun is getter hotter, and brighter References: NASA/ Goddard Space Flight Center: NOAA, USGS, and the American Astronomical Society: Rosenberg, G.D. And S.K. Runcorn (eds.), 1975 Growth rhythms, and the history of the earths rotation: New York Wiley Interscience, Global Warming Sun Takes Some Heat, Environment (October2004), vol. 46 Issue (8), 7-7, 1/2p.Sources: Dr. Sami Solanki/ Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research; Gottingen, Germany.

The sun is millions of times larger, than the earth. As the earth moves closer to the sun, its radiance will continue to spread, and began to warm areas of the planet that are in their winter season. Areas near the equator will be affected first. Areas near latitudes 29.77 degrees north, and south will experience higher, than normal temperatures during the winter, and it will began to get cold later in the season in these regions. These regions are where global warming should be monitored, first. The progression of the earth decaying orbit should be measured by the temperature in winter. The warmer, and/ or sunnier it gets the worse earths orbit is decaying, and the closer the earth is moving towards the sun. As the earth moves closer to the sun its irradiance will spread toward both hemisphere??™s polar ice caps, starting from the equator, during the winter season. In the future there will be no more winters, because the sun??™s irradiance will eventually spread, and covered both hemispheres simultaneously, while the hemisphere that??™s in its summer season will experience extreme high temperatures. It??™s December 16, 2010 the sun is over the southern hemisphere. Houston, Texas is in the northern hemisphere, and the winters days are getting sunnier, and warmer, and the cold weather is setting in later into the season. What is occurring in Houston, Texas will manifest in the rest of the world, in the future. Areas above latitude 29.77 degrees north, and south are now experiencing winter tornadoes, winter flooding, and snow storms that are accompanied by thunder,and lighting, this is highly unusual. It should be too cold for the development of these phenomenon. I have a few questions to ask of you green house gas theorists 1. What does sunny, and/ or warm winter days have to do with green house gases There shouldn??™t be enough irradiance (heat) from the sun for any green house gases to trap, during the winter months. There should be only sun light in winter, not irradiance (heat) from the sun in winter. Green house gases will not cause the winters to recede, nor will it cause winter tornadoes, winter flooding, and snow storms with thunder, and lighting. In the orbital decay effect the earth moves closer to the sun, and the summer will become extremely hot, and the winters will recede, this process have already begun. In the future there will be no more winter. I live at latitude 29.77 degrees North. In winter from latitude zero to latitude 29.77 degrees north, and points beyond the winters are receding, and the winters are setting in later into the winter season., and this is only the beginning. Please keep in mind that you need the suns irradiance,and light in summer for the green house gas effect to be applicable. There is no suns irradiance (heat) in winter, only sun light. What does sunny, and warm winter days have to do with green house gases. Please dont try to tell me that green house gases is causing the winters to be warm, and sunny. Even on cloudy days we are experiencing warm weather in winter, and the cloud cover is too thick for any of the suns irradiance to penetrate. Green house gases settle below cloud cover. This is where the green house gas effect makes no sense.

2. Why on a hot day is the sun irradiance higher, than the ambient temperature The green house gas effect is suppose to causes the ambient temperature (the air around us) to be higher, than the sun irradiance, but if you stand under a shade tree the ambient temperature drops, move from under the shade tree into the sun??™s irradiance the temperature rises. In an actual green house, or an automobile with the windows up the ambient temperature is higher, than the sun??™s irradiance shining into the green house, or automobile. 3. Why in the early 20th century, during the industrial revolution in America, and Europe, wasn??™t there no recorded dramatic rise in temperature The north east region of America was referred to as the rust belt. This region was heavily industrialized, and heavily saturated with Co2, and methane gases. There were high numbers of respiratory cases, and stick smog, but there was no dramatic increase in temperature in America, or Europe. In the early 20th century scientists believed the earth was headed toward another ice age due to the harsh winter weather. Global warming wasn??™t an issue, until the latter part of the 20th century, in spite of all the air pollution in the early 20th century. Global warming should have been an issue in the early 20th century in the rust belt region. The regions with the highest green house gases levels should have the highest temperatures, but this is not the case. The areas of the country that produce the most green house gas emissions should have the highest temperature, but this is not the case. Only global green house gas levels, and global temperatures increases are presented. People that believe in the green house gas theory think the pollution has to be global in order for the temperature to rise. The industrial activity in the rust belt has ended, and green house gases has been dramatically reduced, but the temperature in this area have not increase, or decrease, why. 4. The E.P.A was established in December 2, 1970 to address the worsening air pollution (green house emissions), and the high number of respiratory cases, due to the illegal dumping of harmful chemicals in the air, underground, and in water ways. These harmful chemical were released by chemical companies, refineries, smelting plants, and steel mills. The E.P.A wasn??™t established to address global warming. Global warming wasn??™t an issue, until the 1990??™s, in spite of all the air pollution, before the 1970??™s, why 5. Why is global warming predicted to worsen Since the establishment of the EPA, the clean air act, and all the laws, and regulation pass by congress global warming in America should never be an issue. In spite of all the international clean air initiatives, and measures being taken global warming is still predicted to worsen, why Sources: Environmental Protection Agency: The Natural Resources Defense Council: Natural Environmental Research Council (NERC): Tilburg University (The Netherland) Mr. Willie McDonald [email protected] 1 (832) 891-2865

Global Warming

Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of Earths near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century and its projected continuation. The scientific consensus is that global warming is occurring and is mostly the result of human activity. This finding is recognized by the national science academies of all the major industrialized countries and is not rejected by any scientific body of national or international standing.[2][3][4][B]

During the 20th century, global surface temperature increased by 0.74 ?± 0.18 ?°C (1.33 ?± 0.32 ?°F).[5][A] Most of the observed temperature increase since the middle of the 20th century has been caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases, which result from human activities such as the burning of fossil fuel and deforestation.[6][7]

Regarding future warming, the 2007 Fourth Assessment Report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) used climate model projections to assess six possible greenhouse-gas emission scenarios. Depending on which scenario most closely matches actual overall greenhouse gas emissions, global surface temperature is likely to rise a further1.1 to 6.4 ?°C (2.0 to 11.5 ?°F) by 2100,[5][8] and the upper limit of that range does not include any warming from the potential release of certain carbon-cycle feedbacks.[9] By 2010, more recent observations of emissions made the A1FI scenario the “business as usual” case[10], and confirmed that “the worst-case IPCC scenario trajectories or even worse are being realised”.[11] Including of some of the carbon-cycle feedbacks in the A1FI scenario increases the best estimate to a temperature rise of 4?°C in the 2070s and 5?°C by 2090, with a potential range between 3-7?°C.[9], and even that estimate appears conservative because it does not include feedbacks from permafrost[12], which could be extreme.

In even a 4?°C world, the limits for human adaptation are likely to be exceeded in many parts of the world, while the limits for adaptation for natural systems would largely be exceeded throughout the world. Hence, the ecosystem services upon which human livelihoods depend would not be preserved.[13] For these reasons, virtually all climatologists are now convinced that global warming poses a clear and present danger to civilization. [14]

The uncertainty in IPCCs estimates arises from (1) the use of models with differing sensitivity to greenhouse gas concentrations, (2) the use of differing estimates of humanities future greenhouse gas emissions, and (3) any additional emissions from climate feedbacks that were not included in the models IPCC used to prepare its report, i.e., greenhouse gas releases from permafrost[15]

An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, probably including expansion of subtropical deserts.[16] Warming is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with continuing retreat of glaciers, permafrost and sea ice. Other likely effects of the warming include more frequent occurrence of extreme weather events including heatwaves, droughts and heavy rainfall events, species extinctions due to shifting temperature regimes, and changes in agricultural yields. Warming and related changes will vary from region to region around the globe, though the nature of these regional changes is uncertain.[17] Warming of around 6.7 ?°C would cause some areas of the world to surpass the wet-bulb temperature limit of human survivability, and warming of 11.7 ?°C would put half of the worlds population in an uninhabitable environment.[18][19]

According to a recent Gallup poll, people in most countries are more likely to attribute global warming to human activities than to natural causes. The major exception is the U.S., where nearly half the US population attributes global warming to natural causes despite overwhelming scientific opinion to the contrary.[20]

The Kyoto Protocol is aimed at stabilizing greenhouse gas concentration to prevent a “dangerous anthropogenic interference”.[21] As of May 2010, 192 states had ratified the protocol.[22] The only members of the UNFCCC that were asked to sign the treaty but have not yet ratified it are the USA and Afghanistan. Proposed responses to global warming include mitigation to reduce emissions, adaptation to the effects of global warming, and geoengineering to remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere or reflect incoming solar radiation back to space.

Global Warming

GLOBAL WARMING:

The Reality of the Event

Jonathan R. Foster

January 28, 2009

GLOBAL WARMING: The Fallacy of Gloom and Doom

???Nothing in life is to be feared. It is only to be understood.??? ??“ Marie Curie
On any given day, the mainstream media depicts human activity as adversarial to the earth??™s environment. The reports that are broadcast over radio, television, and newsprint continually suggest that the standards of living and technological successes of most industrial nations will result in a global holocaust that will soon make the world uninhabitable unless everyone changes their ways. So, instead of being optimistic and hopeful of the many accomplishments and potential, societies are manipulated into feeling guilt and pessimism through this steady diet of fear and dread. Since knowledge is power, the truth about global warming is needed in order for humanity to reach its full potential. The only way to overcome the fear concerning this controversial issue is to see the truth and conduct ourselves accordingly. Contrary to popular opinion, global warming is not a man-made environmental occurrence, therefore public opinion concerning this current climate event must change.
What is global warming The popular definition is the increase of the average temperature of the earth??™s atmosphere which could cause an eventual global climate change. The process through which this occurrence takes place is called the Greenhouse Effect, which is the natural process that enables the earth to maintain atmospheric temperatures conducive to life. How the Greenhouse Effect works is relatively simple. Water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and a few other trace gases found in our atmosphere, called greenhouse gases, form a blanket. As solar energy reaches the earth??™s surface and is reflected back into space, this blanket reflects much of this solar energy back to the surface, thereby retaining the heat necessary to support life (see Figure 2).
Scientists agree that such factors as agriculture, forestation, cattle production, and many others contribute to this greenhouse blanket and thereby impact the world??™s climate. Other sources of climate influence include solar activity, volcanic and geothermal activity, and oceanic currents. The climate change event actively reported today, however, is being overwhelmingly accredited to the industrial revolution that started in Great Britain in the late 1700??™s and later spread throughout Europe and America during the 1800??™s. Sadly, this position is based on uncertain data and scenarios while being stated as certain fact.
Patricia S. Muir (1999), an environmental biology professor at Oregon State University, admits that scientists and academia really do not know whether the earth is experiencing an abnormal increase in average temperatures or just a natural, reoccurring warming cycle that is within a normal, long-term temperature range (p.16). The possible consequences extrapolated from such uncertain data include, but are not limited to, coastal flooding, fresh water availability, increased mortality and disease, and negative impacts on the food supply. Their conclusions are then consistently expressed in equally uncertain terms using such helping verbs as may, should, and could (Greenhouse, 2004 p.3). Considering that this present crisis is defined by such vague and unsure declarations, it becomes important to ask ourselves why Political columnist George Will comments that the answer is obvious: to invoke fear for the sake of furthering personal, financial, and/or political agendas (Will, 2004, p.1).
Simple logic dictates that a crisis means profits to both the mainstream media and academia. The truth is that the greater the crisis provokes the greater the greater the public involvement, which in turn produces the greater the viewer ship or readership. Therefore, media outlets notoriously report only those things they feel the public wants to know (Deming, 2005, p.2). Each crisis or urgent condition justifies further government involvement and intrusion into people??™s lives and more taxpayers??™ research funding made available to scientists and research institutions.
Successful people consistently reveal that goals are always intentionally achieved. Individuals should do those necessary things in the proper order to obtain the necessary objectives. For many groups, the use of fear has been, and continues to be, an effective means of manipulating opinions and beliefs in order to achieve their goals of power and control. If scared enough, people will respond as intended. A sufficiently large group of scared people will produce a consensus through which any actions can be justified. Charles T. Rubin, Associate Professor of Political Science at Duquesne University, and Mark Landy, Professor of Political Science at Boston College (1993), noted in their article in Garbage: The Practical Journal for the Environment, that,
All honest accounts of Greenhouse effect warming acknowledge uncertainties in predicting future climate conditions. Since in this area one cannot speak of unambiguous scientific truth, those who want action must refer to some other standard to bolster their case. The assertion is often therefore made that a ???scientific consensus??™ exists about this or that aspect of global warming. (p.2).
Fear ought never to be a tool used for public influence by either the mainstream media, the halls of academia, or at the various levels of government.
In addition, various groups have developed hypothetical situations, called scenarios, to predict these uncertain global warming results. These scenarios, which are nothing more than theoretical speculations lacking substantial data to prove their accuracy, are instead being used as factual evidence to support the agenda of the environmental-activist agenda. Even the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) warns not to receive their scenarios as certifiable forecasts (Rubin, 1993, p. 4).
So, whose fault is it for this current climate change event For many, mankind in general and America in particular are to blame. They point to the Industrial Revolution as the starting line of the earth??™s race toward ecologic apocalypse. Some of the information that serves as the basis of their position does have merit, however. Since the Industrial Revolution of the 1800??™s, the increased manufacture of goods and products has resulted in a substantial improvement in the standards of living in most countries that has brought about the global economy as we know it today. This also explains the confirmed increases of certain industrial byproducts in the form of gas and solid waste emissions, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), from these manufacturing processes as noted by the scientific community (Muir, 1999, p. 5).
Contributions to the atmospheric greenhouse gas quantities, primarily in CO2 and methane, are also attributed to the various methods of energy production and the diverse modes of transportation. Due to its relative inexpensive availability, fossil fuels such as oil, gas, and other petroleum products provide the energy needed to heat and cool homes, allow for relatively inexpensive modes of transportation and produce the materials required to construct and maintain the things necessary for the world??™s various standards of living.

Mutual acknowledgement ends here. According to Monte Hieb, Paleobotanist and chief engineer for the West Virginia Office of Miners Health, Safety, and Training, and co-author Harrison Hieb (2003), their article reveals that most research takes into account the entire greenhouse gas list responsible for the greenhouse effect except one: water vapor. What is interesting is that water vapor is responsible for most of the earth??™s greenhouse effect (Hieb, ???Water???, 2003, p.1). This exception is deceiving when the fact that total human influence is only 0.28% of the greenhouse effect when water vapor is considered. When water vapor is excluded, the percentage jumps to 5.53%. This actually brings the credibility of much of the research into question as it proves that statistical data can be manipulated to say whatever will support the present agenda. The question then becomes whether humanity??™s contribution to the greenhouse effect is considerable or not (Hieb, ???Water???, 2003, p.1). The most obvious conclusion to be drawn is that nature is the primary contributor toward the greenhouse effect. The logical questions to ask at this point concerning nature??™s role are how long and how much
Fluctuations in the global greenhouse effect are neither new nor sudden. Flavia Nunes and Richard Norris of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego, conducted research using carbon isotope testing on deep-sea fossils. Their studies revealed that about 55 million years ago, the ocean??™s currents reversed their courses. This event lasted for about 40,000 years, and was likely caused by volcanic activity and changes in the Earth??™s orbit almost 5 million years prior (Mason, 2003, p. 3). Patricia S. Muir (1993) states the following facts in her course text:
??? The warming over the past century began after one of the colder periods of the last 600 years.
??? Large and rapid climate changes occurred during the last glacial (20,000-100,00[sic] years before the present) and during the transition towards the present interglacial (the last 10,000 years??¦). During this time, we know that there were changes in annual mean temperatures of about 5 degrees C??¦, probably linked to changes in ocean circulation. (p.17)
Academic and scientific research both recognize that during the period of 10th to the 14th centuries AD, a climate change took place that brought about a significant period of warming. During this period, called the Medieval Warm Period (MWP), the population of Europe increased by 50% and crop production equally benefited. Infant mortality and death due to diseases decreased dramatically. Even Greenland was colonized by the Vikings of Iceland during this time. This warming episode continued until the 14th to 15th centuries when the Little Ice Age took place (Deming, 2005, p.3). This current warming event appears to be nothing more than a rebound from a period of cooler temperatures, referred to as the Little Ice Age, to those of the MWP (see Figure 3). Such climate behavior would be considered normal if viewed over time. Since scientific research repeatedly confirms that periods of global climate change are cyclic in nature, then variations to the greenhouse effect are no strangers to time or nature.

The greenhouse effect is as old as the earth and so is the earth??™s contribution to the gases that influence it. Scientific research, using ground and space-based equipment, has repeatedly revealed high levels of methane in the atmosphere over tropical and high-density forests, rice paddies, banana and sugar cane fields, as well as over the flood plains of eastern Siberia. These emissions appear to come from both the plants themselves and the decay of the fallen plant material in the surrounding ground (Spotts, 2006, p.2). Additionally, another major contributor of atmospheric methane is the oceans themselves. Frozen deposits are frequently thawed and released into the atmosphere as the ocean??™s currents circulate warm waters through the various regions which contain these methane deposits.
Another major source of greenhouse gases is the earth??™s interior. Volcanic activity production usually consists of over three-quarters water vapor and the rest consisting of the other greenhouse gases, of which CO2 is found in abundance. These gases are released into the atmosphere through the magma or high pressure explosions (Fisher, 1999, p.1). A note of interest is the increasing frequency of volcanic eruptions being reported throughout the world. Names such as the Philippine Island??™s Mt. Pinatubo, Hawaii??™s Mt Kilauea, Alaska??™s Augustine, Japan??™s Mt. Fuji, Oregon??™s Mt. St. Helens and Mt. Hood are commonplace through media outlets and volcanism research centers worldwide. In fact, these volcanoes are part of a region called The Ring of Fire, the wide area of intense volcanic activity surrounding the Pacific Ocean (see Figure 4). The eruptions of Mt. St. Helens and Mt. Pinatubo alone released tens of thousands of metric tons of ash and gases into the atmosphere which produced temporary, yet measurable, changes in the global climate. According to the Smithsonian Institute??™s Global Volcanism Program (2006), there were over 50 eruptions during 2005 alone and about 160 during the previous decade (p.1). Accompanying all of this volcanic activity is the associated volcanically-released greenhouse gases. With such powerful natural forces in action, the notion of human activity determining global climate destiny is both arrogant and foolish.
It is neither arrogant nor foolish, however, to consider whether human activity does contribute to the greenhouse effect or not, regardless of how insignificant the contributions. The facts and statistics prove that human activity does contribute to the levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, howbeit as inconsequential as those levels appear. What the experts neglect to communicate to the masses is that the warming trend is not entirely detrimental. History does, in fact, reveal several benefits associated with warming trends that humanity in the 21st century can anticipate.
As mentioned before, a period of dramatic warming called the Medieval Warm Period, also referred to as the Little Climate Optimum (LCO), occurred during the first half of the last 10,000 years. This period occurred prior to the Industrial Revolution of the last 200 years. During the LCO, Europe not only experienced warmer temperatures but greater precipitation associated with it. This allowed the populations to enjoy great benefits in numerous areas, involving health, agriculture, environment, and fresh-water availability (Moore, 1998, p.23-48). A close look at the benefits of the MWP should reveal a fairly accurate glimpse into the future of the current warming period.
The years preceding the LCO were known as the Dark Ages. A period known for its cold temperatures and spread of contagious diseases, the Dark Ages were identified as a period of stagnation or decline of the populations throughout Europe (Moore, 1998, p.48-49). The average life expectancy during this time was 30-40 years. During the LCO, the warmer temperatures dried out many of the breeding areas for mosquitoes, which resulted in dramatic reductions of many infectious diseases. This, no doubt, contributed in the great increases in the European populations as mortality decreased and the average life expectancy increased (Moore, 1998, p.49). Simple math can by used here: the colder the climate, the more activity is conducted indoors. The warmer the temperatures, the more active people are outdoors. It is reasonable to assume that the equivalent benefits to health and life expectancy will also be experienced during the warmer days to come.
Increased food production and improved agriculture will certainly be experienced during the coming warming trend. Since plants use carbon dioxide, their growth and yield will certainly improve during the measured CO2 levels and additional rainfall (Moore, 1998, p.113). Thus far, during 2006 alone, precipitation has been above normal throughout North America with the exception of the desert southwest. This is expected to change as warmer temperatures will cause increased precipitation through greater evaporation rates (Questions, 2005, p.3). Warmer temperatures, increased rainfall, and additional CO2, are but the building blocks for not only an improved agricultural industry, but for forest ecosystems also.
Enhanced forest density and growth have already been noted throughout North America, especially in Canada. British researchers report that forests have grown throughout the United Kingdom and expect that the world??™s forests could grow by as much as 9%. Canadian economists have stated expectations in their timber productions to rise by as much as 20% as CO2 and rainfall continue to rise (Moore, 1998, p.116).
Considering these facts, what should then be the appropriate response For many in the political and environmental-activist circles, the Kyoto Protocol was to be the answer. This was a bad response to seriously misrepresented data that was driven by an agenda bent on deception and manipulation. This truth could not be better exemplified as Stephen Schneider, a leading advocate of the global warming theory, was interviewed for Discover magazine in October 1989, and was quoted as saying, ???We have to offer up scary scenarios, make simplified, dramatic statements, and make little mention of any doubts we may have. Each of us has to decide what the right balance is between being effective and being honest??? (Hieb, Global, 2003, p.12). Christine Stewart, Minister of the Environment of Canada from the Calgary Herald, was quoted in the Calgary Herald as stating, ???No matter if the science is all phony, there are collateral environmental benefits??¦ Climate Change [provides] the greatest chance to bring about justice and equality in the world??? (Hieb, Global, 2003, p.14).
Kyoto is not the answer. This treaty was flawed from its very conception. It did not require all nations to respond; as a matter of fact, several third-world nations, such as China, India and Brazil, were not even included in the reductions targets. This, in light of the fact that these countries are expected to produce much more CO2 than the U.S. within the next decade, reveals an attempt to fulfill the redistribution of wealth agenda that is embraced by many of these underdeveloped countries (Questions, 2005, p.2).
The solution is simple: focus less on fear and more on adaptation. The evidence is irrefutable that a climate change is occurring; however, the natural forces that are at work are well beyond mankind??™s control to change or prevent. On the other hand, ignoring the changes in the environment is unjustified also. Confidence can be placed in the good laws America has in place that require and maintain environmental responsibility of its citizens and businesses without damaging its economy in the process. As the temperature gets warmer (assuming that it will beyond what it has done already), the rational recourse is to adapt. After all, this earth has been here long before mankind appeared, and will exist long after it leaves the scene. To believe that anyone is able to destroy something that is greater than they are can be construed as nothing more than an exercise in exaggerated pride and arrogance.
Works Cited
Crowley, T. (Artist) (1991). 1000 year temperature cycle [Image]. Retrieved January 28, 2009 from http://www.geocraft.com/WVFossils/ice_ages.html
|Deming, D. (2005). Global warming, the politicization of science, and Michael Crichton??™s state of fear. Retrieved November 15, 2008 from |
|http://mitsoyfraudes.8k.com/Calen5/Deming.html |
|Fisher, R. (1999). Effects of volcanic gases. Retrieved November 18, 2008 from http://volcanology.geol.ucsb.edu/gas.htm |
|Godsil, H. (Artist). Cycles of the earth and atmosphere [Image]. (2001). Retrieved January 28, 2009 from |
|http://www.ucar.edu/learn/1_3_1.htm. |
|Greenhouse effect & enhanced greenhouse effect. (2004). Center for Earth Observing and Space Research (CEOSR), School of Computational |
|Sciences (SCS), George Mason University. Retrieved November 30, 2008 from http://science.gmu.edu/~zli/ghe.htm |
|Hieb, M & Heib H. (2003). Water vapor rules the greenhouse system. Retrieved December 2, 2008 from |
|http://www.geocraft.com/WVFossils/greenhouse_data.html |
|Hieb, M & Heib H. (2003). Global warming: A chilling perspective. Retrieved December 5, 2008 from |
|http://www.geocraft.com/WVFossils/ice_ages.html |
|How many volcanoes are there in the world (2006). Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program. Retrieved December 3, 2008 from |
|http://www.volcano.si.edu/faq/index.cfmfaq=03 |
|Mason, B. (2006). When the ocean changed course. Science Now. 104: 3. |
| |
|Moore, T. (1998). Climate of fear: Why we shouldn??™t worry about global warming. Washington: Cato. |

|Muir, P. (1999). Global climate change. Retrieved November 21, 2008 from http://oregonstate.edu/%7Emiurp/globelim.htm |

Questions and answers on global warming. (2005). Global Warming Information Center the National Center for Public Policy Research. Retrieved December 2 2008 from http://www.nationalcenter.org/KyotoQuestionsAnswers.html
Ring of fire [Image]. (2003). Retrieved January 28, 2009 from http://www.worldatlas.com/aatlas/infopage/ringfire.htm
Rubin, C. & Landy, M. (1993). Global warming. Garbage: The Practical Journal for the Environment, 5.1, 24.
|Spotts, P. (2006). Do trees share blame for global warming Christian Science Monitor, 98.37, p 13-15. |

The Earth from space [Image]. (2006) Retrieved January 28, 2009 from: http://www.sustainpack.com/images/aap/earth.jpg
Will, G. (2004). Global warming Hot air. From Washington Post.com. A23. Retrieved December 5, 2008 from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A20998-2004Dec22.html

———————–
Figure2. Cycles of the Earth and Atmosphere. (2001). Project Learn at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR).
Copyright 2001 by UCAR

Figure 1. The Earth From Space (2006)
From the SustainPack image database.

Figure3. 1000 Year Temperature Cycle (1991). Note: From EarthQuest, vol5, no1. Copyright 1991

Figure 4. Ring of Fire (2003). WorldAtlas.com Note: From Graphic Maps copyright 2003.

Child Development Chart

CHILD DEVELOPMENT CHART
????

????

????

CHILD DEVELOPMENT CHART

????

CHILD DEVELOPMENT CHART

????

Age
Physical Development
Intellectual / Cognitive Development
Language Development
Social & Emotional Development
Behaviour &Moral development

Birth
to
3 months

Reflexes ??“ Swallowing
Rooting – Grasp ??“ Startle ??“ Walking & Standing ??“ Falling
Moves head deliberately ??“waves arms ??“ kicks legs vigorously
Visually alert ??“ follows adult movements within visual field ??“ watches movement of own hands engages in finger play shows excitement at sounds of voices, footsteps, bathwater etc.
Sudden loud noises distress provoking blinking -crying and turning away. Cries when uncomfortable.
Fixes eyes unblinking on mother??™s face when feeding ??“ begins to react to familiar situations ??“ smiles ??“ coos and makes excited movements
Looks for reassurance and security, responds well to cuddles and pleasing reaction from carer, makes noises of delight when care routines are carried out, starts to build a bond with carer.

3 Months
to
6 Months

Can lift their head and chest in the prone position, supported on their forearms.
Can hold a rattle for a short time.
Watch their hands and play with fingers.
Beginning to show an interest in play things and understand cause and effect.
Prefer moving objects to ones that are still and will follow a moving toy with their eyes.
Take an increasing interest in their surroundings.
Babies will laugh and begin to vocalise becoming conversational with familiar people.
Cry loudly when expressing a need.
Smile in response to speech.
Show enjoyment at routines such as bath time.
Stay awake for longer periods of time,
Fix their eyes unblinkingly on their carers face when feeding.
Respond with obvious pleasure to attention and cuddles.

6 Months
to
9 Months

If lying on their back they can roll over onto their tummy.
Can use shoulders to pull themselves to sitting.
Use a palmar grasp to pass a toy from one hand to another.
Start to stand holding onto furniture.
May take some steps when both hands are held.
Understand the meaning of simple words such as ???bye??™
Turns immediately when they hear main carers voice.
Look in the correct direction for fallen toys.
Recognise familiar pictures.
Talk to themselves in a tuneful, sing song voice.
Squeal with delight.
Understand and obey the command ???no??™
Imitate adult sounds such as a ??™brrr??™ noise.
Manage to feed themselves using their fingers.
Offer toys to others.
Are more wary of strangers.
Play alone for long periods.
Often need to have a comfort object, such as a blanket or a favourite teddy.
Shows distress when their mother leaves.
Start to become more aware of others feelings.
Age
Physical Development
Intellectual/ Cognitive Development
Language Development
Social & Emotional Development
Behaviour &Moral development

12 months

Can stand alone for a few moments.
Start to cruise along furniture.
Can point with index finger at objects of interest.
Build with a few bricks.

Use trial and error methods to learn about objects.
Watch where objects fall and can seek out a hidden toy.
Speak 2-6 recognisable words, and show understanding of many more.
Hand objects to an adult when asked to.
Closely dependent on an adult??™s reassuring presence.
Are affectionate towards familiar people.
Helps with daily routines such as getting dressed.
Wave goodbye spontaneously and on request.

18 months

Can walk steadily and stop safely.
Can squat to pick up or move a toy.
Can run steadily but are unable to avoid obstacles in their path.
Can thread large beads onto a piece of string.

Enjoys trying to sing, as well as listening to songs and rhymes.
Refer to themselves by name.
Obey simple instructions.

Use 6-40 recognisable words, and show understanding of more.
Use gestures alongside words.
Echo the last part of what people say.
Remembers where objects belong.
May indicate toile needs by restlessness or words. Can follow and enjoy stories and rhymes that include repetition.
Are eager to be independent.
Alternate between clinging and resistance.
Can become easily frustrated.

2 -2 ?years

Can climb onto furniture.
Push and pull large wheeled toys.
Pick up tiny objects using a fine pincer grasp.
Are particularly interested in the names of people and objects.
Know their full name.
Continuously asking questions.
Now speak over 200 words and learn new words quickly.
Talk audibly to themselves when playing.
Beginning to express how they feel.
Eager to try out new experiences.
Often like to help others, although not when it conflicts with their own desires.
Age
Physical Development
Intellectual / Cognitive Development
Language Development
Social & Emotional Development
Behaviour &Moral development

3 years

Can ride a tricyle using pedals.,
Climb upstairs using alternate feet.
Can cut paper with scissors.
Can match 2or 3 primary colours.
Are fascinated with cause and effect.
Can sort objects using into simple categories.
Count by rote up to 10.
Learn to speak more that one language if they are being spoken around them.
Enjoy family mealtimes.
Start to show willing to share and take turns.,
Become interested in having friends.
Believe that all rules are unchallengeable.
Start to develop the concept of being helpful.

4 years

Have developed a good sense of balance.
Can catch, kick and bounce a ball.
Are able to thread small beads onto a lace.
Can sort objects into groups.
Can give reasons and solve problems.
Include more detail in their drawings.
Talk fluently, ask questions and understand the answers.
Tell long stories, sometimes confusing fact and fiction.
Can wash and dry their hands and brush their teeth.
Like to be with other children.
Often show sensitivity towards others.
Try to work out what is right or wrong in behaviour.

5 ??“ 6 years

Have increased agility.
Show good co-ordination.
Can construct elaborate models using things such as duplo.
Ask about abstract words.
Are interested in reading and writing.
About past and future showing a good sense of time.
Are fluent in their speech, with correct grammar most of the time.
Enjoys jokes and riddles.
Have definite likes and dislikes
Show sympathy for friends which are hurt.
Enjoy caring for pets.
Understand the social rules of their own culture.
Instinctively help other children if the are upset.
Age
Physical Development
Intellectual / Cognitive Development
Language Development
Social & Emotional Development
Behaviour &Moral development

7 ??“ 9 years

Have increased body strength and quicker reaction times.
Enjoy active, energetic games and sports.
Learning to plan ahead and evaluate what they do.
Have an increased ability to think and reason.
Use and understand complex sentences.
Are highly verbal and enjoy making up and telling jokes.
Take pride in their competence.
Are easily embarrassed .
Form friendships easily but change them rapidly.
Have a clear idea of the difference between reality and fantasy.
Highly concerned with fairness.

9 ??“ 11 years

Have body proportions that are becoming similar to those of adults.
Tackle more detailed tasks such as woodwork.

Can concentrate on tasks for extended periods.
May develop special talents.
Can write lengthy essays.
Beginning to devise memory strategies.
Become increasingly self conscious.
Can identify and describe what they are feeling.
Begin to experience conflict between parents values and those of peers.

12-16 years

Puberty starts and bodies will go through physical change. In girls their breasts will develop, menstruation will begin and their body shape will change. In boys their voice will become deepe, chest hair may start to grow and boys wil start to experience penile erections.
Adolescents will approach a problem in a systematic fashion, and use imagination when solving them.
They will experience a shift in thinking from the concrete to the abstract- an adult way of thinking.

May become self conscious and anxious about physical changes.
Develop a sexual identity.
A desire to be accepted and liked.

Develop own ideas and values which often challenge those of their parents.
Are more able to understand the perspective of others.
Age
Physical Development
Intellectual / Cognitive Development
Language Development
Social & Emotional Development
Behaviour &Moral development

Global Warming

Name:
Course:
College:
Tutor:
Date:
Global Warming
Outline
I. Introduction
Thesis: Global warming has various causes that have been attributed to the adverse effects of global warming which to alleviate them needs nations coming up with workable solutions.
Main Body
II. Causes of Global warming
A. Include: carbon dioxide gas emission from burning of fossil fuels, burning of vegetation, greenhouse effects, and increased temperature effects.
B. Burning of fossil fuels and vegetation are main causes of global warming as a result of emission of CO2 and other harmful gas in the atmosphere which is creating the greenhouse effect.
C. The greenhouse effect is another primary cause of global warming being witnessed in the world today. The carbon dioxide gas and other harmful gases are being released in the atmosphere at alarming rate creating a funnel atmosphere.
III. Effects of global warming
A. The effects of global warming are diverse and far-reaching in the world today and includes rising temperatures.
? Polar Regions rising temperatures due to global warming have cause immense melting of ice leading to rising sea levels. Example, Greenland icecaps melted at a higher rate of fifty-three cubic miles in 1996 an increase from twenty-two cubic miles in 1995.
B. Global warming is to blame for the adverse weather catastrophes that are taking place in the world over the past decade.
? El Nino, Hurricane Katrina, other floods causing havoc, and droughts are manifestations of global warming around the world. Storms and floods are the major catastrophes that are being witnessed today as result of high temperatures causing high rate of evaporation and rising sea levels.
IV. Recommended solutions
A. It is time that mankind goes back to the drawing board and come up with solutions to the global warming lest he becomes extinct without doubt.
B. Politicians and other policy makers have the key to solving the crisis created by global warming and reacting to the causes to control the adverse effects.
? The world needs strict measures on logging and burning of vegetation for urbanization.
? Invention of automobiles and machines that use electricity and solar energy instead of being driven by fuel power like oil and coal will help reduce emission of gases.
? Adoption of green economy is another solution that has been recommended to reduce the causes of global warming.
V. Conclusion.
Global warming has causes attributed by man??™s activities, the effects far-reaching with disastrous influences on man and other species in general. Remedial measures should be taken to reduce the causes of the global warming.

Introduction
The climate of the world over the recent years has experienced radical changes where the average temperatures in the globe have seen a significant rise. The situation of global warming has not unprecedented because over the past there have been changing climatic patterns involved in freezing temperatures, rising temperatures, and rising sea level. Thus, global warming has been defined as the gradual temperature rise on the surface of the earth leading to creation of the greenhouse effect on the globe. But the most noticeable is the temperatures near the earth??™s surface and the large masses of water have rapidly increased to alarming rates. In the past, the earth had the ice-age experience followed by the rather massive ice melt down. Yet all these changes were gradual with the effects on the world being minimal, but the changes the earth is experiencing currently are swifter and have without doubts have changed the ecosystem a great deal leading to extinction of species (Maslin 23). Global warming has various causes that have been attributed to the adverse effects of global warming which to alleviate them needs nations coming up with workable solutions.
The significant differences between the present global warming and the past on are that; whereas in the past years the causes were natural, the present is caused by man??™s activities. Smith (1) points out that the scientists and other scholars have attributed the cause and effect of global warming to emission of carbon dioxide gas and other greenhouse gases that have significantly continued to erode the ozone layer in the atmosphere causing the alarming rate in global warming. The causes of human activities in global warming is mostly the pollution whose global effects has been the rising temperatures, melting ice, rising sea levels and ocean temperatures leading to extinction of species. Scientists, politicians, and other scholars have become concerned with the global warming where drastic and remedial solutions need to be implemented lest humans and other species face rapid extinction in near future.
Causes of Global Warming
The present human activities such as carbon dioxide gas emission from burning of fossil fuels, burning of vegetation, greenhouse effects, and increased temperature effects have been highlighted as the global warming causes. Global warming is no longer a myth analyzing the situation right from the past gradual natural changes. On top of the natural causes of climatic changes in the world, man??™s activities have significantly increased the rate of global warming. With the human activities increasing as a result of population growth and search for more comfort leading to clearing of vegetation to meet man??™s needs such as urbanization, global warming will continue to be a threat in future (Spencer 46).
Burning of fossil fuels has been a main cause of global warming as a result of emission of CO2 and other harmful gas in the atmosphere which is creating the greenhouse effect. In views expressed by Time for Change (1), Automobiles and factories generate immense pollution as a result of burning fossil fuels leading to emission of large amount of carbon dioxide CO2 which has continued being emitted to the atmosphere. The increase in CO2 is affecting climatic patterns around the world. Other factors remaining constant have ensured the carbon dioxide and other harmful gases are trapped in the atmosphere. This has in turn influenced the sunlight to be trapped by the pollution thus being radiated back on the earth??™s surface after striking the surface of the earth. This reflection of the sun??™s rays has caused excess heat on the surface of the earth where scientists have attributed it to the drastic increase of the temperatures in the atmosphere and on surface of earth and water masses.
Logging and burning of vegetation cover is another factor that causes global warming. Not only does this man??™s activity increase emission of CO2 in the atmosphere but also increasing of the temperatures. Logging of vegetation is done to pave way for urbanization and for other man??™s comfort leading to clearing of large chunks of vegetation cover for the insatiable desire of man. The world is therefore experiencing faster rate of vegetation depletion today than before which has become something of major concern. It is common knowledge that vegetation is connected with the balance of atmospheric air. Vegetation balances the atmospheric air by absorbing the carbon dioxide CO2 and this reduces the amount of harmful gases causing the rising temperatures in the atmosphere. With clearing of the forest cover for urbanization and other uses, global warming will continue to haunt the world leading to drastic changes will further affect the world (Environmental Issues 2). This is because the equilibrium is not maintained then global warming will continue given that man has affected the symbiotic relationship in the natural ecosystem.
The greenhouse effect is another primary cause of global warming being witnessed in the world today. The carbon dioxide gas and other harmful gases are being released in the atmosphere at alarming rate. Environmental scientists have pointed out that the rising temperatures are as a result of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other gases being trapped on the earth??™s atmosphere. Smith (2) argues, ???The greenhouse effect was discovered by Joseph Fourier in 1824, first reliably experimented on by John Tyndall in 1858, and first reported quantitatively by Svante Arrhenius in 1896.??? The greenhouse effect in the atmosphere has thus wrecked serious damages on all living organisms. When the ecosystem is destroyed, then living organisms cannot survive which explains the extinction of various species on earth. The blame is all on global warming with greenhouse effect contributing to the extinction of species.
Effects of Global Warming
The effects of global warming are diverse and far-reaching in the world today and includes; rising temperatures, melting ice, rising sea level as a result of melting ice, and disastrous weather catastrophes. The rising temperatures have been attributed to the emission of gases in the atmosphere. Reflection of sun rays on the earth??™s surface allows the surface to cool. However, with continued emission of gaseous substances in the atmosphere is causing the heat from the sun to be trapped in the atmosphere leading to rising temperatures through reflection back on earth. According to Kennedy (10), ???Because human-produces aerosols are smaller and more numerous than natural aerosols, they increase the amount and brightness of clouds.??? The brightness in the clouds which is as a result of pollution causes the entrapment of heat back on earth. These temperatures are causing massive changes in climatic patterns thus affecting animals, plants, and man in particular. Kennedy (8) points out that:
The local-to-global focus of the study ranges from how climate changes are affecting individual animals and plants, such as in the timing of migration, breeding, or plant flowering; to local populations of the same species; to communities of species and their interactions within a single habitat; to major redistributions of assemblages of species within entire ecosystems.
The rising temperatures are to blame for the extinction of species on earth because they adversely destroy the ecosystems where species are comfortable and naturally breed. The rising of temperatures has also affected the sea and ocean temperatures. Scientific reports indicate that species of fish are becoming extinct because they cannot breed given the rising temperatures. The plants that support the water animals in oceans are also reported to be dying at alarming rate because of higher water temperatures. Coral reefs cannot survive in high temperatures are dying. In Polar Regions rising temperatures due to global warming have cause immense melting of ice leading to rising sea levels. For example, Greenland icecaps melted at a higher rate of fifty-three cubic miles in 1996 an increase from twenty-two cubic miles in 1995 (Michaels 67).
Global warming is to blame for the adverse weather catastrophes that are taking place in the world over the past decade. El Nino, Hurricane Katrina, other floods causing havoc, and droughts are manifestations of global warming around the world. Storms and floods are the major catastrophes that are being witnessed today as result of high temperatures causing high rate of evaporation and rising sea levels. Mountains that in 1980s were snow-capped are now bare. All these are the effects of global warming being felt around the world. An example of effects global warming is such factors of climate like the El Nino. ???The warm pooling of Pacific waters that periodically drives worldwide climate patterns and has been occurring more frequently in global warming years- further inhibit precipitation in dry areas of Africa and East Asia??? (Time for Change 1). Another example of global warming is the frequent occurrence of droughts. Studies indicate that areas around the world that are recently suffering from drought and its effects have doubled since 1970s (Environmental Issues 1). Temperature change has made rainfall seasons unreliable and adverse dry spells have increased significantly. This is why in Asia and in Africa, there are people and animals dying as a result of droughts and famines.
Recommended solutions
The people who have for long doubted global warming have so far seen its adverse effects around the world. The world and mankind are threatened indeed. Michaels (104) argues that many have written about a planet in peril which they have highlighted how threatened mankind and other species are. Man has come to grasps with the causes and the effects of global warming and therefore solutions to it lay within his behaviors to curb the menace. It is time that mankind goes back to the drawing board and come up with solutions to the global warming lest he becomes extinct without doubt. For a start global warming is being accelerated by the fast depletion of earth??™s vegetation cover. Temperatures are rapidly rising because there is increased burning of fossil fuel releasing harmful gases into the atmosphere creating the greenhouse effect. Politicians and other policy makers have the key to solving the crisis created by global warming and reacting to the causes to control the adverse effects.
Urbanization and industrialization have caused adverse causes especially in clearing the vegetation cover to build houses as well as the emission of harmful gases to the atmosphere. The world needs strict measures on logging and burning of vegetation. If we are to ensure that the CO2 in the atmosphere is balanced vegetation is needed for the absorption of CO2. Planting of trees to increase the vegetation cover in the world should be imperative so that the ecosystem is preserved. Nations are being advised to ensure the vegetation cover is more than ten percent so that they can preserve the environment and control global warming (Environmental Issues 2).
Industrialization is another aspect that has significantly contributed to global warming. Many machines and automobiles are running on fossil fuels which have resulted to emission of large amounts of harmful gases into the atmosphere. Invention of automobiles and machines that use electricity and solar energy instead of being driven by fuel power like oil and coal will help reduce emission of gases. According to Maslin (86), states have over the world met for various climate conferences where stakeholders from and signed the Kyoto Treaty. The treaty offers workable solutions to the world emission of gases into the atmosphere. The nations who have signed this treaty have agreed to abide by the declaration to reduce the gas emission in atmosphere and this is likely to reduce the greenhouse effect causing global warming by far. It is therefore advisable that nations that have not signed the Kyoto Treaty to be forced to do so even if it is through economic and international relations sanctions.
Adoption of green economy is another solution that has been recommended to reduce the causes of global warming. Green economy refers to the policies adopted by nations which ensure the environment is preserved at all costs. The use of green energy policies underlies in the using power means that do not encourage emission of gases in the atmosphere. Example of green renewable energy includes wind and solar power. Conservation of electricity through reduction is wastage would significantly help save energy. Use of recyclable products is another solution is important because they less pollute the environment. Recyclable materials ensure the end products can be recycled where fewer materials and energy is used after all. Take responsibility as a duty for all will ensure people preserve the environment and lessen the causes of global warming (Kennedy 14).
Conclusion
Global warming is a reality that is facing mankind and the planet as whole. It causes are not new to man and man himself through his daily endeavors to find comfort and sophisticated lifestyles has contributed to global warming. The effects have been far-reaching causing disastrous influences on man and other species in general. This calls for swift remedial measures to curb the causes of the global warming. Analyzing the causes by all policymakers is imperative so that solutions can be drawn whose implementation should be supported by all lest the planet continues to remain in peril. Minimizing the emission of CO2 and other harmful gases will considerably reduce greenhouse effect and therefore lower the rate of rising temperatures. Abiding by the ways and means of conserving the environment through renewable energy, planting more vegetation cover and other eco-friendly methods will without doubt have impact on the causes of global warming.

Works Cited
Environmental Issues. Environmental Issues: global warming & the greenhouse effect. 2010. Web. February 5, 2011.
Kennedy, Barbara K. ???Extensive Research Survey Confirms Life on Earth Now Being Affected by Global Warming.??? Science Journal. 20.1 (2002). 7-16.
Maslin, Mark. Global Warming. Stillwater, MN: Voyageur Press, 2007. Print.
Michaels, Patrick J. Meltdown the predictable distortion of global warming by scientists, politicians, and the media. Washington, DC: Cato Institute, 2005. Print.
Smith, Michael. Global warming and its effects on society. 2010. Web. February 5, 2011.
Spencer, Roy. ???How serious is the global warming threat??? Society. 44.5 (2007): 45-50
Time for Change. Cause and effect for global warming. 2007. Web. February 5, 2011.

Child Development Chart from 0-19years Old

TDA 2.1: Child and young person development
2.1/1/1 Describe the expected pattern of children and young peoples development from birth to 19 years, to include:

Age | Physical Development | Communication & Intellectual Development | Social, Emotional & Behavioural Development |
0-1 year | Gross motor skills – At 1week-4 weeks, the baby lies supine. The baby lies with head turned to one side when placed prone. The head will lag if pulled to sitting position. – At 4-8 weeks, the baby can turn from side to back, lift the head briefly from the prone position, arm and leg movements are jerky and uncontrolled and there is head lag if the baby is pulled to sitting position. – At 8-12 weeks, the babys head is in a central position when lying supine, can lift head and chest off bed in prone position, almost no head lag in sitting position, the legs can kick vigorously. – At 4-6 months, the baby is beginning to use a palmar grasp and can transfer objects from hand to hand. Every thing is taken to the mouth. The baby moves his or her head around to follow people and objects. – At 6-9 months, the baby can roll from front to back, may attempt to crawl but will often end up sliding backwards, can sit without support for longer periods of time. | Communication development – At 1week-4 weeks, the baby responds to sounds, especially familiar voices. The baby quietens when picked up. The baby makes eye contact, move his or her eyes towards the direction of sound. The baby cries to indicate need, e.g. hunger, dirty nappy, etc. – At 4-8 weeks, the baby recognises the carer and familiar objects. The baby makes non-crying noises such as cooing and gurgling. – At 8-12 weeks, the baby is still distressed by sudden loud noises. The baby often sucks or licks lips when he or she hears sound of food preparation. The baby shows excitement at sound of approaching footsteps of voices. During the first 3 months, the baby is comforted by the voices of those who are close to them and will turn especially to the voices or close family members. – At 4-6 months, the baby becomes more aware of others so he or she communicates more and more. The baby imitates sounds he or she can hear, and reacts to the tone of someones voice, begins to laugh and | – At 4-8 weeks, the baby will smile in response to an adult, enjoys sucking. The baby turns to regard nearby speakers face. The baby turns to preferred persons voice, recognises face and hands of preferred adult. – At 8-12 weeks, the baby shows enjoyment at caring routines such as bathtime. The baby responds with obvious pleasure to loving attention and cuddles. The baby fixes his or her eyes unblinkingly on carers face when feeding. The baby stays awake for longer periods of time. – At 4-6 months, the baby shows trust and security. The baby has recognise sleep patterns – At 6-9 months, the baby can manage to feed his- or herself using his or her fingers. The baby is now more wary of strangers. The baby might offer toys to others. The baby might show distress when his or her mother leaves. The baby typically begins to crawl, reach for objects and get to places and people. The baby is now more aware of other peoples feelings. For example, he or she may cry if their brother cries. |
Age | Physical Development | Communication & Intellectual Development | Social, Emotional & Behavioural Development |
0-1 year (cont.) | – At 9-12 months, the baby will be mobile- may be crawling, bear-walking, bottom-shuffling or ever walking. The baby can sit up on her own and lean forward to pick up things, may bounce in rhythm to music. Fine motor skills – At 1week-4weeks, the baby turns his or her head towards the light and stares at bright or shiny objects. The baby is fascinated by human faces and gazes attentively at carers face when fed or held, hands are usually tightly closed. the baby reacts to loud sounds. – At 4-8 weeks, the baby will use his or her hand to grasp the carers finger. – At 8-12 weeks, the baby moves his or her head to follow adult movements, watches his or her hands and plays with his or her fingers, wave his or her arms and bring his or her hands together over the body. The baby holds a rattle for a brief time before dropping it. – At 4-6 months, the baby has good head control and is beginning to sit with support, rolls over from back to side and is beginning to reach for objects, plays with his or her own feet when supine, holds his or her head up when pulled to sitting position. | squeal with pleasure. The baby begins to use vowels, consonants and syllable sounds, e.g. ah, ee aw. – At 6-9 months, babble becomes tuneful, begin to understand words, repeats sounds, raising their arms to be lifted up, using appropriate gestures. – At 9-12 months, the baby can follow simple instructions. Word approximations appear, e.g. mumma, dadda and bye-bye. The tuneful babble develops into jargon. The baby knows that words stand for people, objects, what they do and what happens. Intellectual development – At 1month-4months, the baby recognises differing speech sounds. By 3 months the baby can even imitate low- or high-pitched sounds. – At4-6 months, the baby links objects they know with the sound, e.g. mothers voice and her face. The baby knows the smell of his or her mother. The baby reaches for objects. The baby prefers complicated things to look at from 5-6 months. The baby is disturbed if he or she is shown several images of his or her mother at the same time. The baby can coordinate tracking, reaching, grasping and sucking. The baby | – At 9-12 months, the baby enjoys songs and action rhymes. The baby can drink from a cup with help. The baby will play alone for long periods. The baby has and shows definite likes and dislikes at mealtimes and bedtimes. The baby likes to look at him- or herself in a mirror. The baby imitates other people but there is often a time lapse, so that he or she waves after the person has gone. The baby cooperates when being dressed. |
Age | Physical Development | Communication & Intellectual Development | Social, Emotional & Behavioural Development |
0-1 year (cont.) | – At 6-9 months, the baby is beginning to use a pincer grasp with thumb and index finger. The baby transfers toys from one hand to the other and looks for fallen objects. Everything is explored by putting it in his or her mouth. – At 9-12 months, the babys pincer grasp is now well developed and he or she can pick things up, pull them towards him or her, can manage spoons and finger foods well. The baby can poke with one finger and will point to desired objects. The baby can clasp hands and imitate adults actions. | can develop favourite tastes in food and recognise differences by 5 months. – At 6-9 months, the baby understands signs, e.g. the bib means that food is coming. From 8-9 months the baby knows objects exist when they have gone out of sight, is fascinated by the way objects move. – At 9-12 months, the baby is beginning to develop images. Memory develops, can remember the past, can anticipate the future. This gives the baby some understanding of routine daily sequences, e.g. after a feed, changing, and a sleep with teddy. The baby imitates actions, sounds, gestures and moods after and event is finished. | |
1 year – 2 years | Gross motor skills – At 15 months, The baby probably walks alone, with feet wide apart and arms raised to maintain balance. The baby can probably manage stairs and steps. The baby can get to standing without help. – At 18 months, the child walks confidently, can kneel, squat, climb and carry things around, can climb forwards onto an adult chair and then turn round to sit. | Communication development – The child begins to talk with words or sign language. The child enjoys trying to sing as well as listening to songs and rhymes. – Books with pictures are of great interest. The child points at and often names parts of their body, objects, people and pictures in books. – The child echoes the last part of what others say (echolalia). – The child begins waving his or her arms up and sown, which might mean start again, or I like it. Gestures develop alongside words. | -The child begins to have a longer memory. – The child develops a sense of identity (I am me). – The child expresses his or her needs in words and gestures. – The child enjoys being able to walk, and is eager to try to get dressed- Me do it!. – This child is aware when others are fearful or anxious for him or her as he or she climbs on and off chairs, and so on. |
Age | Physical Development | Communication & Intellectual Development | Social, Emotional & Behavioural Development |
1 year – 2 years (cont.) | Fine motor skills – At 15 months, the baby can build with a few bricks and arrange toys on the floor. The baby holds a crayon in palmar grasp and turns several pages of a book at once. The baby can point to desired objects. – At 18 months, the child can thread large beads, uses pincer grasp to pick up small objects, can build a tower of several cubes, can scribble to and fro on paper. | Intellectual development – The child understands the names of objects and can follow simple instructions. – The child learns about things through trial and error. – The child uses toys or objects to represent things in real life e.g. using a doll as a baby. – The child begins to scribble on paper. – The child often talks to him- or herself playing. | |
2 -3 years | Gross motor skills – The child is very mobile and can run safety, can climb up onto furniture, can walk up and downstairs (usually 2 feet to a step). The child tries to kick a ball with some success but cannot catch yet. Fine motor skills – The child can draw circles, lines and dots, using preferred hand, can pick up tiny objects using a fine pincer grasp, can build tower of 6 or more blocks (bricks), with longer concentration span. – The child enjoys picture books and turns pages singly. | Communication development – The child over-extends the use of a word, e.g. all animals are called doggie. The child uses phrases doggie-gone and the child calls him- or herself by name. The child can follow a simple instruction or request. The child increasingly wants to share songs, dance, conversations, finger rhymes. Intellectual development – The child has improved memory skills. The child can hold a crayon and move it up and down. – The child understand cause and effect, e.g. if something is dropped, it might break. – The child talks about an absent object when reminded of it: e.g. seeing an empty plate, they say biscuit. | – The child is impulsive and curious about their environment. – Pretend play develops rapidly when adults encourage it. – Beginning to say how he or she is feeling. – The child can dress him- or herself. – The child plays with other children, but may not share his or her toys with them. |
Age | Physical Development | Communication & Intellectual Development | Social, Emotional & Behavioural Development |
3-4 years | Gross motor skills – The child can jump from low step, walk backwards and sideways, stand and walk on tiptoe and stand on one foot. – The child rides a tricycle, using pedals. – The child can climb stairs with one foot on each step- and downwards with two feet per step. Fine motor skills – The child can control a pencil using thumb and first two fingers ??“ a dynamic tripod grasp, enjoy painting with a large brush. – The child can use scissors to cut paper. – The child can copy shape. | Communication development – The child begins to use tenses and sentences. – The child might say two times instead of twice, I goed there instead of I went there. The child loves to chat and ask questions. – The child enjoyed much more complicated stories. – The child may stutter because he/she is trying so hard to tell adults things. Intellectual development The child develops symbolic behaviour: – The child talks, pretend plays (often talking to him- or herself) – The child becomes fascinated by cause and effect; the child is continually trying to explain what goes on in the world. – The child can identify common colours, may confuse blue with green. | – The child is beginning to develop a gender role. – The child makes friends. – The child learns to negotiate, give and take through experimenting with feeling powerful, having a sense of control, and through quarrels with other children. – The child is easily afraid, e.g. of the dark. The child imagines all sorts of things. |
4-5 years | Gross motor skills – The child may be able to walk along a line. – The child can catch, kick, throw and bounce a ball. – The child can bend at the waist to pick up objects from the floor. – The child enjoys climbing trees and frames. – The child can run up and down stairs, one foot per step. | Communication development – The child asks why, when and how questions as he/she becomes more and more fascinated with the reasons for things. – Past, present and future tense are use more often. – The child can be taught to say his/her name, address and age. – The child delights in nonsense words that he/she makes up, and jokes using words. | – The child likes to be independent and is strongly self-willed. – The child shows a sense of humour. – The child can undress and dress him-/herself. – The child can wash and dry his/her hands and brush their teeth. |
Age | Physical Development | Communication & Intellectual Development | Social, Emotional & Behavioural Development |
4-5 years(cont.) | Fine motor skills – The child can build a tower of bricks and other constructions too. – The child can draw a recognisable person on request. – The child can thread small beads on a lace. | intellectual development – The child usually knows how to count- up to 20. – The child understand ideas such as more and fewer. – The child will recognise his/her own name when it it written down and can usually write it. – The child can think back and think forward much more easily than before. – The child often enjoys music and playing sturdy instruments, and joins in groups singing and dancing. | |
5-8 years | Gross motor skills – The child can play ball games. – The child can hop and run lightly on toes and can move rhythmically to music. – The child can skip. – The child has increased agility, muscle coordination and balance. – The child can jump off apparatus. Fine motor skills – The child may be able to thread a large-eyed needle and sew large stitches. – The child has good control over pencils and paintbrushes. He/she copies shapes. – The child can draw a person with detail, e.g. clothes and eyebrows. – The child can write letters of alphabet at school, with similar writing grip to an adult. | Communication development – The child tries to understand the meanings of words. The child talks confidently. – The child begins to be able to define objects by their function, e.g. What is a ball You bounce it. – The child begins to understand book language, and that stories have characters and a plot. – The child begins to realise that different situations require different ways of talking. Intellectual development – The child includes more detail in their drawings. – The child can usually write his/her own name. | – The child has developed a stable self-concept. – The child can hide their feelings once they can begin to control them. – The child can think of the feelings of others. – The child can take responsibility, e.g. helping younger children. |
Age | Physical Development | Communication & Intellectual Development | Social, Emotional & Behavioural Development |
5-8 years (cont.) | | – Thinking becomes increasingly coordinated as the child is able to hold in mind more than one point of view at a time. – The child enjoys chanting and counting. The child can use his/her voice in different ways to play different characters in pretend play. | |
8-11 years | Gross motor skills – The child can ride a bicycle. – The child has increased strength and coordination. – The child plays energetic games and sports. – Children differ in physical maturity, Girls experience puberty earlier than do boys. – The childs body proportions are becoming more similar to an adults Fine motor skills – The child can control his/her small muscles well and has improved writing and drawing skills. – The child is starting to join letters together in handwriting. – The child is usually writing with joined-up letters. | Communication development – The child use and understand complex sentences. – The child enjoys making up stories and telling jokes. – The child can write fairly lengthy essays. – The child writes stories that show imagination are increasingly legible and grammatically correct. Intellectual development – The child is learning to plan ahead and evaluate what they do. – The child can deal with abstract ideas. – The child enjoys sewing and woodwork. – The child can concentrate on tasks for increasing period. – The child may be curious about drugs, alcohol and tobacco. – The child may develop special talents. | – The child may become discouraged easily. – The child takes pride in their competence. – The child can be argumentative and bossy, but can equally be generous and responsive. – The child tends to be particularly sensitive to criticism. – The child prefers to spend leisure time with friends and continues to participate in small groups of the same sex. – The child wants to talk, dress and act just like friends do. |
Age | Physical Development | Communication & Intellectual Development | Social, Emotional & Behavioural Development |
12-19 years | Growth; – The head, feet and hands grow to adult size first, then – The arms and legs grow in length and strength, and finally – The trunk grows to full adult size and shape. The average boy grows fastest between 14-15, girls grows fastest between 12-13. Girls finish their growth spurt at 18, boys finish growing aged 20. Secondary sex characteristics develop; – The growth of pubic hair, sweat, oil glands and hair grows in the armpits and on the legs in both sexes, facial hair, muscle, chest hair and deepened voice for males. Breasts and widened hips for females. Primary sex characteristics develop; – Hormonal changes cause a boys penis and testicles to grow and the body to produce sperm. Girls start to menstruate or have their monthly period. Both these events signal sexual maturity ??“ the ability to reproduce. | Communication development Young people become independent and spend much of their day outside the home. – The young person has a fast, legible style of handwriting. – The young person communicates in an adult manner. – The young person understands abstract language, such as idioms. – The young person is able to process texts and abstract meaning. Intellectual development Young people experience a major shift in thinking from concrete to abstract- and adult way of thinking (formal operational stage). – Thinking about possibilities that are not directly observable. – Thinking ahead ??“ young people start to plan ahead, often in a systematic way. – Thinking about their own thought processes??“ being able to explain what strategies you use when trying to remember things. – Thinking beyond conventional limits- thinking about issues that generally preoccupy human beings in adulthood, such as morality, religion and politics. They approach a problem in a systematic fashion and also use their imagination when solving problems. | – The young person may become self-conscious or worried about physical changes. – The young person develops a sexual identity; self-labelling as gay or lesbian tends to occur around the age of 15 for boys and 15and a half for girls. – The young person often feels misunderstood. – The young person can experience wide emotional swings. – The young person wants to become accepted and liked. – The young person tends to identify more with friends and begin to separate from parents; they are less dependent on family for affection and emotional support. |

Global Warming

The issue of global warming is a hot topic at present, with massive debate as to what is happening, why it happening and what we should be doing about it. Global warming is a term used to describe the increase in temperatures across the world, which in turn leads to climate change. The terms ???global warming??™ and ???climate change??™ are often used as if they mean the same thing but they are quite different; global warming is the measurable increase in temperature, whereas climate change refers to ???any change in the state of the climate that can be identified by changes in the average and/or the variability of its properties (e.g., temperature, precipitation), and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer??™ (Nodvin, 2010)
Evidence shows that global temperatures have been rising steadily over the last few decades (Nodvin, 2010), and that this has had an effect on the natural climate and topology of our world. Global warming is a result of the greenhouse effect. Our earth is naturally surrounded by a layer of insulating greenhouse gases which help to retain energy within the earths??™ atmosphere. Increase in the levels of greenhouse gases – such as carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapour and methane – results in an increase of the heat trapped, boosting the global temperature. Higher temperatures lead to shifts in climatic patterns across the world; the weather becomes more erratic, rainfall increases and changes in distribution and sea-levels rise. Human activity is seen as the biggest factor in this climate change. Global warming is accepted as fact by the large majority of climactic scientists (The Royal Society 2004), yet there is a small group of dissidents who debate its cause, or even its very existence. These sceptics suggest that global warming is part of a natural cycle of the Earth, or that the effects of global warming do not result in climate change.

The increase in CO2 production is one of the most significant causes of the increase in greenhouse gases. Carbon compounds are found in every living thing on Earth; human, animal or plant (CarbonInfo, 2010). Without human interference, the amount of carbon in the atmosphere is regulated naturally. Humans, animals and the decay of biomass, or plant life, all produce carbon, but the Earth is equipped with natural ???carbon sinks??™, or consumers of carbon. These include rainforests, oceans and rocks, which use carbon as part of their natural processes. However, human activity has resulted in a massive increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, through the burning of fossil fuels and the clearing and burning of rainforests, resulting in a much higher level of CO2 than the earth is naturally able to cope with .Carbon dioxide levels are now higher than they have ever been in the last million years (Shukman, 2006), mainly due to human industrialisation.
Changing weather patterns are often cited as further proof of climate change. According to the National Academies (2008), average temperatures have risen twice as fast in the last decade as in the previous decade, eleven of the last twelve years are the warmest on record and the years from 2000??“2100 are predicted to be the hottest in the last 10,000 years. It??™s not just about the temperature; the heat causes oceans to expand, leading to rising sea levels and increased rainfall. Furthermore, it is not simply the case that everywhere will get hotter at the same rate; climactic patterns are expected to radically shift, resulting in a knock-on effect to agriculture and natural migratory patterns, and threats to human and animal habitats (Huntley, B., 1991). Evidence of extreme weather is easy to find; in the past year alone there has been massive flooding in parts of Asia, extreme heat waves in Moscow, Russia and the calving of the biggest chunk of ice from the Greenland ice sheet since monitoring began 50 years ago (World Meteorological Organization, 2010).
The effects of climate change are already visible in our world. Research from National Geographic (2010) shows that glaciers and ice sheets are melting, coastlines are receding and animals??™ migratory patterns are changing. Further suggestions are made as to the future ??“ less fresh water is predicted to be available, storms and drought will increase, and whole inhabited islands will disappear as sea levels rise. A report released in 2004 by the Parliamentary Office for Science and Technology (POST) outlines a number of health impacts of climate change on the UK; it is predicted that extremes of temperature could lead to more heat-related deaths, increased UV radiation levels could lead to more skin cancer and cataracts in human individuals and the incidence of both insect- and water-borne diseases may increase.
Despite the overwhelming evidence, there are some small communities who deny the existence of global warming. More commonly, there are also groups who concede global warming, but deny that global warming is effecting climate change. Furthermore, there are groups who allow that both global warming and climate change are indeed real phenomena, but reject the idea that human activity is to blame.

Nodvin, S., 2010. Global Warming, Encyclopedia of Earth, [online] Available at: Accessed 11/11/2010
The Royal Society, 2004. The costs of Kyoto for the US economy. The Energy Journal, volume 25,
pages 53-71.
Carbon-Info, 2010. Global Warming ??“ The Science Explained, Carbon-Info, [online] Available at: Accessed 11/11/2010
Shukman, D., 2006. Sharp rise in CO2 levels recorded, BBC News Science/Nature, [online] Available at: < http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4803460.stm> Accessed 11/11/2010
National Academies, 2008. Understanding and responding to climate change, National Academiesof Sciences, Engineering and Medicine, [online] Available at: < http://dels.nas.edu/resources/static-assets/materials-based-on-reports/booklets/climate_change_2008_final.pdf > Accessed 11/11/2010